Abstract

We report on the fabrication of shape-controlled microchannels in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation at 600 kHz repetition rate followed by chemical etching. The shape control is achieved by suitable wobbling of the glass substrate during the irradiation process. Cylindrical microchannels with uniform cross-sections are demonstrated with an unprecedented length of 4 mm. Some applications are also addressed: connection of two microchannels with a smaller one, 3D microchannel adapter and fabrication of O-grooves for easy fiber-to-waveguide coupling.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of microfabrication: the science of miniaturization (CRC Press, 2002).
  2. G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368-373 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. J. DeMello, “Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems,” Nature 442(7101), 394-402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277-279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120-2129 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
  8. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55-57 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Sikorski, C. Rablau, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, P. Bado, and L. G. Beholz, “Fabrication and characterization of microstructures with optical quality surfaces in fused silica glass using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7519-7523 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 81, 1-10 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166-174 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 26-46 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900-1902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443-9458 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381-386 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443-9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368-373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. DeMello, “Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems,” Nature 442(7101), 394-402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sikorski, C. Rablau, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, P. Bado, and L. G. Beholz, “Fabrication and characterization of microstructures with optical quality surfaces in fused silica glass using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7519-7523 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Beholz, L. G.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavallotti, P. L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-J.

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 81, 1-10 (2005).

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55-57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiodo, N.

Clark, J.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

della Valle, G.

DeMello, A. J.

A. J. DeMello, “Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems,” Nature 442(7101), 394-402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörring, J.

Dugan, M.

Eaton, S. M.

Fallnich, C.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.

Juodkazis, S.

Kawachi, M.

Killi, A.

Kopf, D.

Lanzani, G.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

Lederer, M.

Lederer, M. J.

Li, J.

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

Marcinkevi Ius, A.

Martinez Vazquez, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

Masuda, M.

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mehandale, M.

Midorikawa, K.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 81, 1-10 (2005).

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55-57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Morgner, U.

Ng, M. L.

Nishii, J.

Osellame, R.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rablau, C.

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

Shihoyama, K.

Sikorski, Y.

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmann, A.

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 81, 1-10 (2005).

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55-57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-780 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomozawa, M.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Virgili, T.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Whitesides, G. M.

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368-373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, J. Clark, G. Lanzani, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and T. Virgili, “Ultrafast optofluidic gain switch based on conjugated polymer in femtosecond laser fabricated microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209(1-2), 166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(1-2), 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368-373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. DeMello, “Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems,” Nature 442(7101), 394-402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).

M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of microfabrication: the science of miniaturization (CRC Press, 2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Microscope image of a modified line by a 1 kHz repetition rate laser; (b) corresponding microchannel obtained after chemical etching. (c) modified line by a 600 kHz repetition rate laser; (d) corresponding microchannel obtained after chemical etching. Symbol ’ + ’ indicates the sample edge. (e) Schematic diagram of an etched cone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of a conical spiral inscribed into the substrate; (b) representation of a conical microchannel (blue), of the compensating conical spiral (red) and of the final cylindrical microchannel (grey).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope image of (a) conical spiral inscribed in the glass and (b) the etched microchannel .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dotted lines A1 and B1 represent the cross sections of the path along which the sample is moved. A2 and B2 represent the actual cross-sections irradiated in the sample due to refraction at the interface. A3 and B3 are the microscope images of the corresponding microchannel cross-sections.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscope images of (a) the irradiated double spiral and (b) the 4-mm long cylindrical microchannel achieved by etching the above structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) 3D representation of conical spirals with the two helixes (not to scale), Microscope image of (b) the irradiated conical spiral with two helixes (XY view) and (c) the same structure after etching. The openings serve as entrance columns for the microchannel

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic representation of the microchannel adapter in 3D (not to scale). Microscope image of (b) the irradiated structure and (c) of the final microchannel adapter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Two microchannels connected by a third smaller one. (b) Waveguide centered to the microchannel; the blow-up shows the end of the etched channel and the optical waveguide.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental setup for coupling the laser light from fiber to the waveguide through the O-groove; (b) sample with an O-groove (same dimensions as Fig. 8(b)) and a fiber inserted half way. (c) blow-up of the guided mode near field image.

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