Abstract

A broadband beam steering device using the dielectrophoresis-tilted prism of liquids is demonstrated. Dielectric force is utilized to slant the interface to imitate the refractive behavior of a prism. The steering angle increases as the applied voltage increases. Two dimensional beam steering is also successfully achieved by stacking two devices in orthogonal positions. The broadband feature is demonstrated using two collinear green and red laser beams.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. J. Hornbeck, “128 × 128 deformable mirror device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED 30(5), 539–545 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos, and V. Sergan, “Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasure applications,” Opt. Eng. 42(4), 1038–1047 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. F. McManamon, “Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering,” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 24–29 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. R. Smith, D. C. Abeysinghe, J. W. Haus, and J. Heikenfeld, “Agile wide-angle beam steering with electrowetting microprisms,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6557–6563 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Pohl, “The motion and precipitation of suspensoids in divergent electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(7), 869–871 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, “Variable focus dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4101–4106 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, “Dielectrically actuated liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7140–7145 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. A. Haus, and J. R. Melcher, “Electromagnetic fields and energy,” Chap. 11, http://web.mit.edu/6.013_book/www/chapter11/11.9.html
  15. H. D. Tholl, ““Novel laser beam steering technique,” Technologies for Optical Countermeasures III,” Proc. SPIE 6397, 639708 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

H. D. Tholl, ““Novel laser beam steering technique,” Technologies for Optical Countermeasures III,” Proc. SPIE 6397, 639708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, “Variable focus dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4101–4106 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. McManamon, “Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering,” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 24–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Smith, D. C. Abeysinghe, J. W. Haus, and J. Heikenfeld, “Agile wide-angle beam steering with electrowetting microprisms,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6557–6563 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos, and V. Sergan, “Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasure applications,” Opt. Eng. 42(4), 1038–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. J. Hornbeck, “128 × 128 deformable mirror device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED 30(5), 539–545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

H. A. Pohl, “The motion and precipitation of suspensoids in divergent electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(7), 869–871 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

An, D. C.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos, and V. Sergan, “Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasure applications,” Opt. Eng. 42(4), 1038–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

Chen, R. T.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, B. D.

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos, and V. Sergan, “Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasure applications,” Opt. Eng. 42(4), 1038–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

Heikenfeld, J.

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, L. J.

L. J. Hornbeck, “128 × 128 deformable mirror device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED 30(5), 539–545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. S.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janarthanan, N.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C. H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. J.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maki, J. J.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, “Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering,” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 24–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, H. A.

H. A. Pohl, “The motion and precipitation of suspensoids in divergent electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(7), 869–871 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reza, S. A.

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sergan, V.

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos, and V. Sergan, “Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasure applications,” Opt. Eng. 42(4), 1038–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. R.

Steier, W. H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taboada, J. M.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. N.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tholl, H. D.

H. D. Tholl, ““Novel laser beam steering technique,” Technologies for Optical Countermeasures III,” Proc. SPIE 6397, 639708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. H.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

Xu, S.

Yeh, J. A.

Zhang, C.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q. J.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED (1)

L. J. Hornbeck, “128 × 128 deformable mirror device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED 30(5), 539–545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. Pohl, “The motion and precipitation of suspensoids in divergent electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 22(7), 869–871 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos, and V. Sergan, “Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasure applications,” Opt. Eng. 42(4), 1038–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

P. F. McManamon, “Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering,” Opt. Photonics News 17(3), 24–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. D. Tholl, ““Novel laser beam steering technique,” Technologies for Optical Countermeasures III,” Proc. SPIE 6397, 639708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Haus, and J. R. Melcher, “Electromagnetic fields and energy,” Chap. 11, http://web.mit.edu/6.013_book/www/chapter11/11.9.html

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (6315 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of the beam steering by the tilted interface between two liquids due to the dielectric force. (b) The proposed beam steering device structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Device geometry for the electric field simulation. (b) Simulated electric field distribution of liquid-1 and shape of the interface between two liquids in a voltage-on state. The blue dashed lines represent the ideal shape of the interface and the red solid line represents the actual shape of the interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Setup for measuring steering angle. (b) Experimental results of steering angle vs. voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser spot without passing through the device. (b) Laser spot transmitting through the central region of the interface. (c) Laser spot transmitting through the interface farther away from the central region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Beam spot combining red and green lasers. (b) Light dispersion by the device. (c) Demo of 2D beam steering by dielectrophoresis. (Media 1)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical properties of liquid-1 and liquid-2.

Equations (1)

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F=ε02(ε1ε2)(EE) ,

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