Abstract

A novel technique has been developed to obtain simultaneous tomographic images of temperature and species concentration based on hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy. The hyperspectral information enables several key advantages when compared to traditional tomography techniques based on limited spectral information. These advantages include a significant reduction in the number of required projection measurements, and an enhanced insensitivity to measurements/inversion uncertainties. These advantages greatly facilitate the practical implementation and application of the tomography technique. This paper reports the development of the technique, and the experimental demonstration of a prototype sensor in a near-adiabatic, atmospheric-pressure laboratory Hencken burner. The spatial and temporal resolution enabled by this new sensing technique is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

T. Kraetschmer, D. Dagel, and S. T. Sanders, "Simple multiwavelength time-division multiplexed light source for sensing applications," Opt. Lett. 33(7), 738-740 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, D. J. Ewing, and L. Ma, "Application of simulated annealing for multispectral tomography," Comput. Phys. Commun. 179(4), 250-255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, and W. Cai, "Determination of the optimal regularization parameters in hyperspectral tomography," Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4186-4192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ma, and W. Cai, "Numerical investigation of hyperspectral tomography for simultaneous temperature and concentration imaging," Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3751-3759 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, P. J. Kinnius, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Temperature measurements in reacting flows by time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 281(2), 319-325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris, and R. N. Tolchenov, "A high-accuracy computed water line list," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368(3), 1087-1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

B. Gillet, Y. Hardalupas, C. Kavounides, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, "Infrared absorption for measurement of hydrocarbon concentration in fuel/air mixtures (MAST-B-LIQUID)," Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(11-12), 1633-1653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, and E. Clough, "Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption," Chem. Eng. J. 77(1-2), 111-118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Franchois, and C. Pichot, "Microwave imaging - complex permittivity reconstruction with a Levenberg-Marquardt method," IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 45(2), 203-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

1988

M. Ravichandran and F. C. Gouldin, "Retrieval of asymmetric temperature and concentration profiles from a limited number of absorption-measurements," Combust. Sci. Technol. 60(1), 231-248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous-variables with the simulated annealing algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13(3), 262-280 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

H. M. Hertz, "Experimental-determination of 2-D flame temperature-fields by interferometric tomography," Opt. Commun. 54(3), 131-136 (1985).
[CrossRef]

An, X.

Arroyo, M. P.

Barber, R. J.

R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris, and R. N. Tolchenov, "A high-accuracy computed water line list," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368(3), 1087-1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Carey, S. J.

Caswell, A. W.

Chung, K. B.

Clough, E.

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, and E. Clough, "Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption," Chem. Eng. J. 77(1-2), 111-118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colbourne, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Colbourne, S. M.

Corana, A.

A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous-variables with the simulated annealing algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13(3), 262-280 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Crossley, S. D.

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. H. Pegrum, S. M. Colbourne, P. J. Turner, W. J. Hurr, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine," Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6578-6592 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Dagel, D.

Davidson, J. L.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Ewing, D. J.

W. Cai, D. J. Ewing, and L. Ma, "Application of simulated annealing for multispectral tomography," Comput. Phys. Commun. 179(4), 250-255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franchois, A.

A. Franchois, and C. Pichot, "Microwave imaging - complex permittivity reconstruction with a Levenberg-Marquardt method," IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 45(2), 203-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia-Castillo, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Garcia-Stewart, C.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Garcia-Stewart, C. A.

Gillet, B.

B. Gillet, Y. Hardalupas, C. Kavounides, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, "Infrared absorption for measurement of hydrocarbon concentration in fuel/air mixtures (MAST-B-LIQUID)," Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(11-12), 1633-1653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

S. Roy, P. J. Kinnius, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Temperature measurements in reacting flows by time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 281(2), 319-325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gouldin, F. C.

K. B. Chung, F. C. Gouldin, and G. J. Wolga, "Experimental reconstruction of the spatial density distribution of a nonreacting flow with a small number of absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 34(24), 5492-5500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravichandran and F. C. Gouldin, "Retrieval of asymmetric temperature and concentration profiles from a limited number of absorption-measurements," Combust. Sci. Technol. 60(1), 231-248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Hardalupas, Y.

B. Gillet, Y. Hardalupas, C. Kavounides, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, "Infrared absorption for measurement of hydrocarbon concentration in fuel/air mixtures (MAST-B-LIQUID)," Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(11-12), 1633-1653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. J.

R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris, and R. N. Tolchenov, "A high-accuracy computed water line list," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368(3), 1087-1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herold, R. E.

Hertz, H. M.

H. M. Hertz, "Experimental-determination of 2-D flame temperature-fields by interferometric tomography," Opt. Commun. 54(3), 131-136 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F. P.

Huber, R.

Hurr, W. J.

Kavounides, C.

B. Gillet, Y. Hardalupas, C. Kavounides, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, "Infrared absorption for measurement of hydrocarbon concentration in fuel/air mixtures (MAST-B-LIQUID)," Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(11-12), 1633-1653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinnius, P. J.

S. Roy, P. J. Kinnius, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Temperature measurements in reacting flows by time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 281(2), 319-325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kraetschmer, T.

Kranendonk, L. A.

Litt, T.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Litt, T. J.

Lucht, R. P.

S. Roy, P. J. Kinnius, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Temperature measurements in reacting flows by time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 281(2), 319-325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

Marchesi, M.

A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous-variables with the simulated annealing algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13(3), 262-280 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Martini, C.

A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous-variables with the simulated annealing algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13(3), 262-280 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McCann, H.

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. H. Pegrum, S. M. Colbourne, P. J. Turner, W. J. Hurr, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine," Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6578-6592 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, and E. Clough, "Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption," Chem. Eng. J. 77(1-2), 111-118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Mewes, D.

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, and D. Mewes, "Tomographic measurement of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber," Chem. Eng. Sci. 60(2), 517-522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Murray, S. C.

Okura, Y.

Ozanyan, K. B.

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. H. Pegrum, S. M. Colbourne, P. J. Turner, W. J. Hurr, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine," Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6578-6592 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, and E. Clough, "Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption," Chem. Eng. J. 77(1-2), 111-118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Pegrum, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Pegrum, S. H.

Pichot, C.

A. Franchois, and C. Pichot, "Microwave imaging - complex permittivity reconstruction with a Levenberg-Marquardt method," IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 45(2), 203-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ravichandran, M.

M. Ravichandran and F. C. Gouldin, "Retrieval of asymmetric temperature and concentration profiles from a limited number of absorption-measurements," Combust. Sci. Technol. 60(1), 231-248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ridella, S.

A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous-variables with the simulated annealing algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13(3), 262-280 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, P. J. Kinnius, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, "Temperature measurements in reacting flows by time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 281(2), 319-325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salem, K.

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, and D. Mewes, "Tomographic measurement of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber," Chem. Eng. Sci. 60(2), 517-522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

Taylor, A. M. K. P.

B. Gillet, Y. Hardalupas, C. Kavounides, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, "Infrared absorption for measurement of hydrocarbon concentration in fuel/air mixtures (MAST-B-LIQUID)," Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(11-12), 1633-1653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris, and R. N. Tolchenov, "A high-accuracy computed water line list," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368(3), 1087-1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terzija, N.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Tolchenov, R. N.

R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris, and R. N. Tolchenov, "A high-accuracy computed water line list," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368(3), 1087-1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsotsas, E.

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, and D. Mewes, "Tomographic measurement of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber," Chem. Eng. Sci. 60(2), 517-522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

Turner, P. J.

Urata, Y.

Winterbone, D. E.

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, and E. Clough, "Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption," Chem. Eng. J. 77(1-2), 111-118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolga, G. J.

Wright, P.

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. H. Pegrum, S. M. Colbourne, P. J. Turner, W. J. Hurr, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine," Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6578-6592 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. Litt, S. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, "High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine," Chem. Eng. J.in press.

ACM Trans. Math. Softw.

A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous-variables with the simulated annealing algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13(3), 262-280 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Therm. Eng.

B. Gillet, Y. Hardalupas, C. Kavounides, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, "Infrared absorption for measurement of hydrocarbon concentration in fuel/air mixtures (MAST-B-LIQUID)," Appl. Therm. Eng. 24(11-12), 1633-1653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. J.

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, and E. Clough, "Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption," Chem. Eng. J. 77(1-2), 111-118 (2000).
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Chem. Eng. Sci.

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, and D. Mewes, "Tomographic measurement of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber," Chem. Eng. Sci. 60(2), 517-522 (2005).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The mathematical formulation of the hyperspectral tomography problem.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup and the hyperspectral laser source. Top panel: experimental arrangement and a seven -zone tomography scheme used to perform the tomographic reconstruction. The dimensions of the zones are not drawn to scale. Bottom panel: schematic of the FFP-TFL used to measure the flame spectra. The design is among the most basic possible for a swept-wavelength laser based on a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example spectra measured by the laser at beam location 6.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

T and X obtained from line-of-sight analysis using the measured spectra at each beam location. The adiabatic flame temperature and concentration obtained from equilibrium calculations are: T = 2379 K and X = 0.347 at Φ = 1.0; T = 1647 K and X = 0.190 at Φ = 0.5. The flame temperatures measured by CARS are: T = 2400 K at Φ = 1.0; T = 1625 K at Φ = 0.5.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the fitting residuals between line-of-sight-averaged and tomography analysis.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tomographic reconstructions of T and X over the seven zones. Left panel: Φ=1.0. Left panel: Φ=0.5. Treatment of the Lorentzian width was the same as that in Fig. 4. The adiabatic flame temperature and concentration obtained from equilibrium calculations are: T=2379 K and X=0.347 at Φ=1.0; T=1647 K and X=0.190 at Φ=0.5. The flame temperatures measured by CARS are: T=2400 K at Φ=1.0; T=1625 K at Φ=0.5. A constant Lorentzian width (νL ) was used in evaluating the Voigt lineshape: νL =0.13 cm-1 for Φ=1.0 and νL =0.14 cm-1 for Φ=0.5. The dimensions of the zones are not drawn to scale.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The T and X phantoms used to investigate the sensitivity of the tomographic algorithm to initial guesses.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The evolution of Fmin during the minimization with different initial guesses.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The T distributions reconstructed with different initial guesses.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p(Lj,λi)=ab k S (λk,T()) · X () · Φ (λkλi) · P · dℓ
D(Trec,Xrec)=j=1J i=1I [pm(Lj,λi)pc(Lj,λi)]2pm(Lj,λi)2
F(Trec,Xrec)=D(Trec,Xrec)+γT·RT (Trec)+γX·RX(Xrec)

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