Abstract

We reported on the formation of a microstructure (skew cross-shaped pattern) in bulk CaF2 single crystal, which originates from local dislocations and microcracks around the focal point of a single infrared femtosecond laser beam. Relations between morphology of the microstructure and the laser power as well as the number of laser pulses were discussed. Furthermore, it was observed that the optically induced microstructure could be partially erased by additional irradiation of its neighboring area with femtosecond laser pulses. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) observations confirmed the disappearance of some local dislocations after the additional femtosecond laser irradiation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R.  Gattass, L. R.  Cerami, and E.  Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express  14, 5279-5284 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-14-12-5279
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, "Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. B. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2559-2561 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining intransparent materials," Nat. Photon. 2, 219-225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining intransparent materials," Nat. Photon. 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, "Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2559-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R.  Gattass, L. R.  Cerami, and E.  Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express  14, 5279-5284 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-14-12-5279
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bihlmayer, G.

K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blewett, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerami, L. R.

Dai, Y.

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Fujita, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, "Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikuhara, Y.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, A.

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, K.

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

Mirua, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
[CrossRef]

Speier, W.

K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svirko, Y. P.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104(2008).
[CrossRef]

Szot, K.

K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, R. R.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tohma, J.

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, "Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waser, R.

K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, "Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, A. Kuwabara, A. Nakamura, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsunaga, and Y. Ikuhara, "Dislocation-enhanced ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, "Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Mirua, and K. Hirao, " "Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, J. Si, N. Shibata, and Y. Ikuhara, "Optically produced cross pattening based on local dislocations inside MgO single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Song, and J. Qiu, "Self-formation of quasiperiodic void structure in CaF2 induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023112(2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Kanehira, J. Si, J. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation," Nano Lett. 5, 1591-1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

A. Nakamura, K. Matsunaga, J. Tohma, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, "Conducting nanowires in insulating ceramics," Nat. Mater. 2, 453-456 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Szot, W. Speier, G. Bihlmayer, and R. Waser, "Switching the electrical resistance of individual dislocations in single-crystalline SrTiO3," Nat. Mater. 5, 312-320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (2)

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining intransparent materials," Nat. Photon. 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram shows the formation of local dislocations by fs laser irradiation. The top facet of sample was (011) crystal plane. The high-density dislocations exit in crystallographic(11 1̄) and (1̄1 1̄) planes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Optical microscope image of CaF2 (011) facet viewed from the top of the sample after irradiation; (b). TEM image of the photo-modified area induced by femtosecond laser inside CaF2 crystal. The white stripe about 50 nm wide extends from the laser irradiation area corresponding to microcracks in the [11 1̄] direction; (c). Diffraction image of laser irradiated area marked by circle in Fig. 2(b); (d). High-resolution TEM image of the region around microcrack marked by the circle in Fig. 2(b); (e). The micrograph of lattice fringes of (11 1̄) plane corresponding to Fig. 2(d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Average length of dark lines as a function of the pulse energy. The femtosecond laser beam was focused 200 μm beneath the surface of the sample, and the pulse number was 1000; (b) Average length of dark lines as a function of the number of femtosecond laser pulses. The linear focus of the objective was located 200μm below surface. The average length of dark lines was evaluated as the distance of dark lines from central dot in the skew cross-shaped pattern observed in the top-view image of the optical microscope.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). (c) Optical microscope images of CaF2 (011) plane viewed from the top of the sample after irradiation with 500 pulses. The pulse energy was 7.5μJ and the linear focus of the objective located 200 μm beneath surface; (b) (d) Optical microscope images of CaF2 (011) plane viewed from the top of the sample after another irradiation at neighboring area with the same laser condition. The position of second shot was indicated by the arrow in Figs. 4(b, d); (e-g) High-resolution TEM images of the region marked by circles; (h-j) Micrograph of lattice fringes of (11 1̄) plane corresponding to the region marked by the rectangle in Figs. 4(e-g).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical microscope image of the array of skew cross-shaped patterns in the CaF2 single crystal sample

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