Abstract

We report on the experimental observations of multiple dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser with large normal cavity dispersion. The dynamic evolution of solitons as a function of the pump power is demonstrated, alternately evolving on the stable and unstable states. The proposed laser produces the multiple solitons of up to ten for the pump power of about 406 mW. Multistability and hysteresis phenomena observed in this report are qualitatively distinct from those observed in the large net-anomalous-dispersion conventional-soliton fiber lasers. The experimental results suggest that the accumulation of excessive pulse chirps together with the nonlinear polarization effect play key roles in the multistability operation of dissipative solitons.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th edition (Academic Press, Boston, 2007).
  2. J. M. Soto-Crespo and Ph. Grelu. "Temporal multisoliton complexes generated by passively mode-locked lasers" in Dissipative Solitons, N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, eds., (Springer, New York, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 77, 023814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Lou, M. Currie, and F. K. Fatemi, "Experimental measurements of solitary pulse characteristics from an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser," Opt. Express 15, 4960-4965 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, "Dissipative soliton resonances," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, "High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58-73 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140-148 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, "Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion," Opt. Express 16, 19322-19329 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, "Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, "Generation of multiple gain-guided solitons in a fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 1581-1583 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).
  18. B. G. Bale, J. N. Kutz, A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Spectral filtering for high-energy mode-locking in normal dispersion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1763-1770 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Olivier and M. Piché, "Origin of the bound states of pulses in the stretched-pulse fiber laser," Opt. Express 17, 405-418 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, "Dissipative soliton resonances," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140-148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bale, J. N. Kutz, A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Spectral filtering for high-energy mode-locking in normal dispersion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1763-1770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, "Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion," Opt. Express 16, 19322-19329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, "High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 77, 023814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. W. Lou, M. Currie, and F. K. Fatemi, "Experimental measurements of solitary pulse characteristics from an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser," Opt. Express 15, 4960-4965 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, "Generation of multiple gain-guided solitons in a fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 1581-1583 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, "Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, "Dissipative soliton resonances," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, "Dissipative soliton resonances," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bale, B. G.

Cabasse, A.

Chai, L.

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, "Dissipative soliton resonances," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chédot, C.

G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).

C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, T. H.

Chong, A.

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140-148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bale, J. N. Kutz, A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Spectral filtering for high-energy mode-locking in normal dispersion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1763-1770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 77, 023814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, "High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

Fatemi, F. K.

Grelu, P.

G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).

Haboucha, A.

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hideur, A.

G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, "Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion," Opt. Express 16, 19322-19329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, M. L.

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komarov, A.

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, "Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kutz, J. N.

Leblond, H.

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, "Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lecaplain, C.

C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, "Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion," Opt. Express 16, 19322-19329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. W.

Lu, C.

Lu, K.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martel, G.

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, "Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion," Opt. Express 16, 19322-19329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, D.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, F. Lederer, H. Leblond, and B. A. Malomed, "Stability of dissipative optical solitons in the three-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation," Phys. Rev. A 75, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, M.

Ortaç, B.

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, "Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion," Opt. Express 16, 19322-19329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Lecaplain, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, and J. Limpert, "High-power all-normal-dispersion femtosecond pulse generation from an Yb-doped large-mode-area microstructure fiber laser," Opt.Lett. 32, 2738-2740 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piché, M.

Renninger, W.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, "High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Renninger, W. H.

Sanchez, F.

A. Haboucha, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, and G. Martel, "Mechanism of multiple pulse formation in the normal dispersion regime of passively mode-locked fiber ring lasers," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 14, 261-267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, "Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. J.

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, "Dissipative soliton resonances," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, "Generation of multiple gain-guided solitons in a fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 1581-1583 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, "High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 77, 023814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 140-148 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bale, J. N. Kutz, A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, "Spectral filtering for high-energy mode-locking in normal dispersion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1763-1770 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Y. J. Song, M. L. Hu, C. Wang, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, L. Chai, and C. Wang, "Environmentally stable, high pulse energy Yb-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser operating in the soliton-like regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1088-1090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, "Generation of multiple gain-guided solitons in a fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 1581-1583 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

X. Liu, T. Wang, C. Shu, L. Wang, A. Lin, K. Lu, T. Zhang, and W. Zhao, "Passively harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber soliton laser with a nonlinear polarization rotation," Laser. Phys. 18, 1357-1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiber. Integr. Opt.

G. Martel, C. Chédot, A. Hideur, and P. Grelu, "Numerical Maps for Fiber Lasers Mode Locked with Nonlinear Polarization Evolution:Comparison with Semi-Analytical Models," Fiber. Integr. Opt. 27, 302-340 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (5786 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (5657 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of DS laser cavity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Optical spectra of pulses; (b) Autocorrelation trace; (c) Oscilloscope trace at pump power P=45 mW; (d) Oscilloscope trace at P=406 mW

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Videos showing multistability evolution of DSs in terms of pump power P. The left and right videos show the operation state of increasing pump power (Media 1) and decreasing power (Media 2), respectively. P represents the pump power and N denotes the number of solitons in the cavity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relationship between the soliton number N and the pump power P. The thin dashed segments denote the unstable state of laser. The thick solid segments represent the stable N-soliton ML state. The blue and red step lines show the ascending and descending procedures, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship of (a) the 3-dB spectral width Δλ of pulses and (b) the corresponding time-bandwidth product Δτ·Δν versus the pump power P.

Metrics