Abstract

We examine several ways to manipulate the loss in electro-magnetic cloaks, based on transformation electromagnetics. It is found that, by utilizing inherent electric and magnetic losses of metamaterials, perfect wave absorption can be achieved based on several popular designs of electromagnetic cloaks. A practical implementation of the absorber, consisting of ten discrete layers of metamaterials, is proposed. The new devices demonstrate super-absorptivity over a moderate wideband range, suitable for both microwave and optical applications. It is corroborated that the device is functional with a subwavelength thickness and, hence, advantageous compared to the conventional absorbers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 7779 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging (invited paper)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788 - 792 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, "Near-sighted superlens," Opt. Lett. 30, 75-77 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, "Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 15, 17772-17782 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Bilotti, L. Nucci, and L. Vegni, "An SRR based microwave absorber," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 2171-2175 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Ng, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, "Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber," Opt. Lett. 34, 644-646 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Argyropoulos, Y. Zhao, and Y. Hao, "A Radially-Dependent Dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method for the Evaluation of Electromagnetic Cloaks," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (to be published), ArXiv.org:0805.2050v1, (2009).
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  21. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. B. Andersen and A. Frandsen, "Absorption efficiency of receiving antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 2843-2849 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. S. McGuirk and P. J. Collins, "Controlling the transmitted field into a cylindrical cloaks hidden region," Opt. Express 16, 17560-17573 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Tamura, "Microwave dielectric losses caused by lattice defects," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26, 1775 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, and T. H. Hand, "Q-Based Design Equations and Loss Limits for Resonant Metamaterials and Experimental Validation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 127 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (8)

N. A. Zharova, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Inside-out electromagnetic cloaking," Opt. Express 16, 4615-4620 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, C. Argyropoulos, and Y. Hao, "Full-wave finite-difference time-domain simulation of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Opt. Express 16, 6717-6730 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. McGuirk and P. J. Collins, "Controlling the transmitted field into a cylindrical cloaks hidden region," Opt. Express 16, 17560-17573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, and T. H. Hand, "Q-Based Design Equations and Loss Limits for Resonant Metamaterials and Experimental Validation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, "Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 15, 17772-17782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

H. Tamura, "Microwave dielectric losses caused by lattice defects," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26, 1775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging (invited paper)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilotti, L. Nucci, and L. Vegni, "An SRR based microwave absorber," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 2171-2175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. B. Andersen and A. Frandsen, "Absorption efficiency of receiving antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 2843-2849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, "Near-sighted superlens," Opt. Lett. 30, 75-77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788 - 792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 7779 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, J. B.

J. B. Andersen and A. Frandsen, "Absorption efficiency of receiving antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 2843-2849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Argyropoulos, C.

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilotti, F.

F. Bilotti, L. Nucci, and L. Vegni, "An SRR based microwave absorber," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 2171-2175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

Chen, H.

J. Ng, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, "Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber," Opt. Lett. 34, 644-646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, P. J.

Cummer, S. A.

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, and T. H. Hand, "Q-Based Design Equations and Loss Limits for Resonant Metamaterials and Experimental Validation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, D.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, A.

J. B. Andersen and A. Frandsen, "Absorption efficiency of receiving antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 2843-2849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hand, T. H.

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, and T. H. Hand, "Q-Based Design Equations and Loss Limits for Resonant Metamaterials and Experimental Validation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

Jiang, L.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kong, J. A.

H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marhefka, R. J.

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGuirk, J. S.

Milton, G. W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munk, B. A.

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

Neff, C. W.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

Nucci, L.

F. Bilotti, L. Nucci, and L. Vegni, "An SRR based microwave absorber," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 2171-2175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging (invited paper)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788 - 792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Popa, B. -I.

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, and T. H. Hand, "Q-Based Design Equations and Loss Limits for Resonant Metamaterials and Experimental Validation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pryor, J. B.

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qing, Y.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, "Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 15, 17772-17782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raynolds, J. E.

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, "Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 15, 17772-17782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 7779 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 7779 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shu, W.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging (invited paper)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788 - 792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 7779 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, H.

H. Tamura, "Microwave dielectric losses caused by lattice defects," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26, 1775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vegni, L.

F. Bilotti, L. Nucci, and L. Vegni, "An SRR based microwave absorber," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 2171-2175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788 - 792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. -I.

H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Ruan, and M. Qiu, "Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 15, 17772-17782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, andW. J. Padilla, "A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization," Opt. Express 16, 7181-7188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zharova, N. A.

Zou, Y.

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Zou, L. Jiang, S. Wen, W. Shu, Y. Qing, Z. Tang, H. Luo, and D. Fan, "Enhancing and tuning absorption properties of microwave absorbing materials using metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, "Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

J. B. Andersen and A. Frandsen, "Absorption efficiency of receiving antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 2843-2849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, and T. H. Hand, "Q-Based Design Equations and Loss Limits for Resonant Metamaterials and Experimental Validation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, "Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

H. Tamura, "Microwave dielectric losses caused by lattice defects," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26, 1775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. (1)

F. Bilotti, L. Nucci, and L. Vegni, "An SRR based microwave absorber," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 2171-2175 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, "Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization," Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. A. Cummer, B. -I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

H. Chen, B. -I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, "Ideal Cylindrical Cloak: Perfect but Sensitive to Tiny Perturbations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, andW. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 7779 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788 - 792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Argyropoulos, Y. Zhao, and Y. Hao, "A Radially-Dependent Dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method for the Evaluation of Electromagnetic Cloaks," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (to be published), ArXiv.org:0805.2050v1, (2009).

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