Abstract

We have investigated the impact of three types of intermediate reflectors on the absorption enhancement in the top cell of micromorph tandem solar cells using rigorous diffraction theory. As intermediate reflectors we consider homogenous dielectric thin-films and 1D and 3D photonic crystals. Besides the expected absorption enhancements in cases where photonic band gaps are matched to the absorption edge of the semiconductor, our results distinguish between the impact of zero order Bragg-resonances and diffraction-based enhancement at larger lattice constants of the 3D photonic crystal. Our full-spectrum analysis permits for a quantitative prediction of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency increase of the a-Si:H top cell.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2008).
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  18. J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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2008 (6)

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Mutitu, S. Shi, C. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures,” Opt. Express 16, 15238–15248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhou and R Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hisikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (V.30),” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 15, 425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

2006 (4)

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Advanced optical design of tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” J. Non- Cryst. Solids 352, 1892–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. Tobias and A. Luque, “Ideal efficiency of monolithic series-connected multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 10, 323–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gee, “Optically enhanced absorption in thin silicon layers using photonic crystals,” Proceedings of 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (New Orleans, LA), 150–153 (2002).

2000 (1)

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Ballif, C.

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

Bermel, P.

Bielawny, A.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Biswas, R

D. Zhou and R Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Creazzo, T.

Dominé, D.

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Dreisow, F.

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hisikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (V.30),” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 15, 425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feitknecht, L.

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Finger, F.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, S.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Galisteo, J. F.

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Santamaria, F.

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gee, J. M.

J. M. Gee, “Optically enhanced absorption in thin silicon layers using photonic crystals,” Proceedings of 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (New Orleans, LA), 150–153 (2002).

Golmayo, D.

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goto, M.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hisikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (V.30),” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 15, 425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. GreenThird Generation Photovoltaics (Springer, Berlin, 2003).

Hapke, P.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hisikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hisikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (V.30),” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 15, 425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

Houben, L.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light second edition, (Princeton: Princeton University Press2008).

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light second edition, (Princeton: Princeton University Press2008).

Juarez, B. H.

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keppner, H.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kluth, O.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koi, Y.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Advanced optical design of tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” J. Non- Cryst. Solids 352, 1892–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, M.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambertz, A.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lange, B.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Lederer, F.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Li, L.

Lisca, M.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Luque, A.

I. Tobias and A. Luque, “Ideal efficiency of monolithic series-connected multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 10, 323–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, T.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Mäuck, A.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light second edition, (Princeton: Princeton University Press2008).

Meguro, T.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miclea, P. T.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Mutitu, J. G.

Nakajima, A.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, E.

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paul, T.

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Rech, B.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Sasaki, T.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Smole, F.

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Advanced optical design of tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” J. Non- Cryst. Solids 352, 1892–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinhauser, J.

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Suezaki, T.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tawada, Y.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Tnnermann, A.

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tobias, I.

I. Tobias and A. Luque, “Ideal efficiency of monolithic series-connected multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 10, 323–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Advanced optical design of tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” J. Non- Cryst. Solids 352, 1892–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vetterl, O.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Rhein, A.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Wagner, H.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hisikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (V.30),” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 15, 425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light second edition, (Princeton: Princeton University Press2008).

Würfel, P.

P. Würfel, Physik der Solarzellen vol. 2, (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH2000).

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimi, M.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentel, R.

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandemsolar cells,” Appl. Phys. A 69169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, X. Duan, and L. Kimerling, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Zhou and R Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Non- Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Advanced optical design of tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” J. Non- Cryst. Solids 352, 1892–1895 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

J. F. Galisteo, F. Garcia-Santamaria, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juarez, C. Lopez, and E. Palacios, “Self-assembly Approach to Optical Metamaterials,” J. Opt. A 7, 244–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2)

D. Dominé, J. Steinhauser, L. Feitknecht, A. Shah, and C. Ballif, “Effect of ZnO Layer as Intermediate Reflector in Micromorph Solar Cells,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 3, 1465–1468 (2006)
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, T. Meguro, T. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Hybrid Cell and Module with Newly Developed Innovative Interlayer,” Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference 2, 1489–1492 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Szameit, T. Pertsch, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Tnnermann, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer “Light evolution in arbitrary two-dimensional waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. A,  75, 053814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, T. Paul, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Light propagation in a fishnet metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B,  78, 155102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell”, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1)

J. M. Gee, “Optically enhanced absorption in thin silicon layers using photonic crystals,” Proceedings of 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (New Orleans, LA), 150–153 (2002).

Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics (1)

A. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, A. von Rhein, M. Lisca, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, B. Lange, R. Zentel, and R. Carius, “Diffractive and energy selective photonic crystals for thin-film tandem solar cells,” Proceedings of SPIE Optics and Photonics, edited by B. von Roedern and A. B. Delahoy, vol.  6651-06 (2007).

Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. (1)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hisikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (V.30),” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 15, 425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (1)

I. Tobias and A. Luque, “Ideal efficiency of monolithic series-connected multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 10, 323–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mäuck, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97–108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Würfel, Physik der Solarzellen vol. 2, (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH2000).

M. A. GreenThird Generation Photovoltaics (Springer, Berlin, 2003).

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light second edition, (Princeton: Princeton University Press2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The number of absorbed photons weighted with the solar spectrum in a-Si:H as a function of the wavelength and h im is shown in (a). The enhancement of the number of absorbed photons as a function of h intermediate for the homogenous dielectric IRL is shown in (b), while (c) shows a scheme of the model geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The number of absorbed photons in the a-Si:H cell weighted with the solar spectrum as a function of the wavelength and h opt for a Bragg stack as IRL is shown in (a). The enhancement of the number of absorbed photons as a function of h opt is shown in (b). (c) shows the geometric Bragg layer structure. The optical spectra of the Bragg stack where absorption enhancement has its maxima is shown in (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Number of absorbed photons in the top and the bottom cell depending on the thickness of the bottom cell. The parameters of the Bragg-type IRL correspond to those for which absorption enhancement has its maximum [see Fig. 2(d)].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The number of absorbed photons in the a-Si:H cell weighted with the (AM1.5) solar spectrum is shown in (a) as a function of wavelength and sphere radius R for an inverted opal IRL. The enhancement of the number of absorbed photons as a function of R is shown in (b). (c) shows the schematic opaline IRL geometry. The optical spectra in (d) correspond to the sphere radius at the local maximum at R = 130nm in (b).

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