Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the use of saw-tooth optical pulses, which are shaped using a fiber Bragg grating, to achieve robust and high performance time-domain add–drop multiplexing in a scheme based on cross-phase (XPM) modulation in an optical fiber, with subsequent offset filtering. As compared to the use of more conventional pulse shapes, such as Gaussian pulses of a similar pulse width, the purpose-shaped saw-tooth pulses allow higher extinction ratios for the add and drop windows and significant improvements in the receiver sensitivity for the dropped and added channels.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. I. Siahlo, A. T. Clausen, L. K. Oxenlowe, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, "640 Gb/s OTDM Transmission and Demultiplexing using a NOLM with Commercially Available Highly Non-linear Fiber," CLEO, (2005) paper CTuO1.
  2. V. Marembert, C. Schbert, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, S. Ferber and H. G. Weber, "Investigation of fiber based gates for time division demultiplexing up to 640 Gbit/s," OFC, (2006) paper OWI12.
  3. J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. M. Patrick and A. D. Ellis, "Demultiplexing using cross phase modulation induced spectral shifts and Kerr rotation in optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 29, 227 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D. Pelusi, "160-Gb/s Optical Time_Division Multiplexing using a Mach-Zehnder Modulator in a fiber Loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1060-1062 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Bhamber, A. I. Latkin, S. Boscolo, and S. K. Turitsyn, "All-Optical TDM to WDM Signal Conversion and Partial Regeneration using XPM with Triangular Pulses," ECOC (2008), paper Th.1.B.2.
  9. S. Boscolo, A. I. Latkin, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Passive Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Normally Dispersive Fiber Systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1196- 1203 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

2008 (4)

M. D. Pelusi, "160-Gb/s Optical Time_Division Multiplexing using a Mach-Zehnder Modulator in a fiber Loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1060-1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Boscolo, A. I. Latkin, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Passive Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Normally Dispersive Fiber Systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1196- 1203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. M. Patrick and A. D. Ellis, "Demultiplexing using cross phase modulation induced spectral shifts and Kerr rotation in optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 29, 227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boscolo, S.

S. Boscolo, A. I. Latkin, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Passive Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Normally Dispersive Fiber Systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1196- 1203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

D. M. Patrick and A. D. Ellis, "Demultiplexing using cross phase modulation induced spectral shifts and Kerr rotation in optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 29, 227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

Karlsson, M.

J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Latkin, A. I.

S. Boscolo, A. I. Latkin, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Passive Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Normally Dispersive Fiber Systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1196- 1203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. T.

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

Olsson, B.-E.

J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

Patrick, D. M.

D. M. Patrick and A. D. Ellis, "Demultiplexing using cross phase modulation induced spectral shifts and Kerr rotation in optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 29, 227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

M. D. Pelusi, "160-Gb/s Optical Time_Division Multiplexing using a Mach-Zehnder Modulator in a fiber Loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1060-1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

Provost, L.

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. Boscolo, A. I. Latkin, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Passive Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Normally Dispersive Fiber Systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1196- 1203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. M. Patrick and A. D. Ellis, "Demultiplexing using cross phase modulation induced spectral shifts and Kerr rotation in optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 29, 227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Li, B.-E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer Based on XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Boscolo, A. I. Latkin, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Passive Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Normally Dispersive Fiber Systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1196- 1203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. D. Pelusi, "160-Gb/s Optical Time_Division Multiplexing using a Mach-Zehnder Modulator in a fiber Loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1060-1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "An Efficient Wavelength Converter Exploiting a Grating-Based Saw-Tooth Pulse Shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1461-1463 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, T. T. Ng, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Timing jitter tolerant OTDM demultiplexing using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1992-1994 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. S. Bhamber, A. I. Latkin, S. Boscolo, and S. K. Turitsyn, "All-Optical TDM to WDM Signal Conversion and Partial Regeneration using XPM with Triangular Pulses," ECOC (2008), paper Th.1.B.2.

F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, T. T. Ng, and D. J. Richardson, "OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexer using a saw-tooth pulse shaper," ECOC (2008), PD Th.3.C.4.

A. I. Siahlo, A. T. Clausen, L. K. Oxenlowe, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, "640 Gb/s OTDM Transmission and Demultiplexing using a NOLM with Commercially Available Highly Non-linear Fiber," CLEO, (2005) paper CTuO1.

V. Marembert, C. Schbert, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, S. Ferber and H. G. Weber, "Investigation of fiber based gates for time division demultiplexing up to 640 Gbit/s," OFC, (2006) paper OWI12.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Intensity and corresponding derivative profiles of Gaussian, Triangular and saw-tooth shapes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated spectrograms of the OTDM signal at various points of the system, when Gaussian or saw-tooth pulses are considered as the control signal (relative contour levels expressed in dB).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Experimental set-up of the Add-drop multiplexer. MOD: amplitude modulator, DL: delay line, PC: polarisation controller, MUX: multiplexer. (b) – (d) Eye diagrams at different points of the system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). 10ps saw-tooth (red solid trace) and Gaussian (dashed blue trace) intensity profiles. (b) Corresponding spectra of the data signal only at the output of the HNLF, when saw-tooth (red solid trace) and Gaussian (dashed blue trace) are used as the control signals. The inset shows a zoomed-in detail of the XPM components, normalized in power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured (symbols) and simulated (solid lines) add (a) and drop (b) windows for sawtooth (red triangles) and Gaussian (Blue circles) shapes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Eye diagrams of the ADM for the dropped (top row), through (middle row) and added (bottom row) channels, when saw-tooth (left) or Gaussian (right) control pulses are used.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BER curves of the dropped (a), through and added channels (b) when Gaussian (circles) or saw-tooth (triangles) control pulses are considered. Back- to-back curves are also reported for reference. (c) Power sensitivity of the added channel (right) as a function of the offset filter position when saw-tooth (triangles) or Gaussian (circle) control pulses are used.

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