Abstract

An imaging spectrometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented. The Fabry-Perot interferometer scans the mirror distance up to contact and the intensity modulated light signal is transformed using a Fourier Transform based algorithm, as the Michelson based Fourier Transform Spectrometers does. The resulting instrument has the advantage of a compact, high numerical aperture, high luminosity hyperspectral imaging device. Theory of operation is described along with one experimental realization and preliminary results.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. G. Sellar and G. D. Boreman, "Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 013602 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. V. Loewenstein, "The History and Current Status of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 5, 845-854 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. D. Alcock and J. M. Coupland, "A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2861-2868 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Hays and H. E. Snell "Multiplex Fabry-Perot interferometer," Appl. Opt. 30, 3108-3113 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, and I. Pippi, " Spectral measurements with a new Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometer (FTIS)," in Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Conference on Instrument New Concepts (Toulouse, 21-25 July, 2003): vol. 3, pp. 2023 - 2025.
  6. C. Fabry and A. Perot, "On the Application of Interference Phenomena to the Solution of Various Problems of Spectroscopy and Metrology," Astrophys. J. 9, 87-115 (1899).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), Chap. 9.

2006 (1)

R. D. Alcock and J. M. Coupland, "A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2861-2868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. G. Sellar and G. D. Boreman, "Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 013602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1966 (1)

1899 (1)

C. Fabry and A. Perot, "On the Application of Interference Phenomena to the Solution of Various Problems of Spectroscopy and Metrology," Astrophys. J. 9, 87-115 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, R. D.

R. D. Alcock and J. M. Coupland, "A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2861-2868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

R. G. Sellar and G. D. Boreman, "Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 013602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coupland, J. M.

R. D. Alcock and J. M. Coupland, "A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2861-2868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fabry, C.

C. Fabry and A. Perot, "On the Application of Interference Phenomena to the Solution of Various Problems of Spectroscopy and Metrology," Astrophys. J. 9, 87-115 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

Loewenstein, E. V.

Perot, A.

C. Fabry and A. Perot, "On the Application of Interference Phenomena to the Solution of Various Problems of Spectroscopy and Metrology," Astrophys. J. 9, 87-115 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Sellar, R. G.

R. G. Sellar and G. D. Boreman, "Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 013602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snell, H. E.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astrophys. J. (1)

C. Fabry and A. Perot, "On the Application of Interference Phenomena to the Solution of Various Problems of Spectroscopy and Metrology," Astrophys. J. 9, 87-115 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. D. Alcock and J. M. Coupland, "A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2861-2868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. G. Sellar and G. D. Boreman, "Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 013602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), Chap. 9.

A. Barducci, P. Marcoionni, and I. Pippi, " Spectral measurements with a new Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometer (FTIS)," in Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Conference on Instrument New Concepts (Toulouse, 21-25 July, 2003): vol. 3, pp. 2023 - 2025.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison between Michelson and F-P interferometers used for FT spectroscopy. Upper row Michelson, lower row F-P interferometer. Left column spectrum reconstruction of a monochromatic source, right column the case of a broadband source.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the behavior of the two mirrors (one slightly convex) when approached and pushed into contact. The ring interference fringes move concentrically from the center to the border. When in contact the central fringe enlarges while the mirror deformates elastically.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Rendering of the F-P device and its section. The piezo actuator and the trimming screws are visible.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic layout of the experiment. From left to right: the blue laser used to calibrate the OPD which through a holographic pattern generator illuminates a semi transparent screen placed behind the color target. The light of a xenon lamp shining on the target is reflected and collected by an objective and focused on the CCD camera passing through the scanning F-P cavity. Small holes in the target allow the blue spots to be focused on the camera (as schematized in the box at top left).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Picture of the experiment as described in the text. The sample is a Gretag Macbeth ColorChecker®. The HI system is made of a photographic objective coupled with a 12-bit CCD camera. The F-P is placed as close as possible to the camera sensor. Between the objective and the F-P is placed the optical band pass filter (370-720 nm) needed to select the wanted portion of the spectrum. A blue laser having 410 nm wavelength is diffused by a holographic pattern generator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) the full interferogram of the pixels illuminated with the blue light; (b) the zoom of the interferogram in (a). Minima and maxima of the interferogram are calculated (in red), interpolated OPD steps in green. The distance between a minimum and a maximum corresponds to a mirror displacement of a quarter of the wavelength (about 102 nm) and to an increment of the OPD of a half wavelength (205 nm).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Video frame of the colour checker target. In magenta and white are indicated the areas used for the calculation of the spectrum of the magenta and white tabs. In blue are indicated the pixels used to calibrate the OPD for both tabs

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). the interferogram of the magenta set of pixels in Fig. 7; Fig. 8(b) the same interferogram after having calibrated the OPD using the information from Fig. 6(b). The black dots are the recorded data, the red dots are the values found with the reconstruction algorithm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) in black and magenta respectively the spectra of the white and magenta tabs (b) magenta spectrum normalized with respect to the white to obtain the absolute reflectivity spectrum. The black trace is the reflectivity spectrum obtained with a spectrometer.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The 24 spectra calculated as described in the text. For each tab the horizontal scale is 400-720 nm and the vertical scale is the reflectivity from 0 to 1 (normalized with respect to the white tab). The diamond traces are the experimental data, the solid thin lines are the spectra measured with a classical spectrometer.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The complex transmission spectrum of a glass doped with didymium oxide. The thin line is the same spectrum measured with a classical spectrometer.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Spectrum of a target illuminated by five laser beams having wavelength 410 nm (used as a reference), 532.4 nm, 633 nm, 637.5 nm and 674 nm. In the box a zoom of the green line showing the resolution

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

RGB picture taken with the imaging spectrometer. In the front blue and red primulae, in the center an orchidea with buds on top, in the back a mimosa. The spectrum of each pixel has been elaborated to obtain the RGB values. The camera has been set to 2×2 binning mode to reduce the pixel number and the calculation time.

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