Abstract

Damage of optical components due to laser irradiation reduces reliability and limits durability. Calcium fluoride (CaF2) is commonly used for deep UV laser optics because it shows a very low tendency of color center formation as, compared to other UV-X optical materials. Here, we report on the exterior damage of CaF2 UV-X optics due to radiation with high pulse-energy densities (80 mJ/cm2) from an ArF laser. At such high energy densities, damage occurs on the external resonator side. The damage is generated by a partial alteration of the CaF2 substrate to crystalline CaCO3 (calcite). The decomposition of CaF2 is mainly driven by photochemical processes in the presence of water vapor, which are induced by the UV-laser light and the elevated temperature within the beam profile.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Optics developments in the VUV - soft X-ray spectral region," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. Ferre-Borrull, A. Duparre, and E. Quesnel, "Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poltras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, "Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications," Opt. Lett. 24, 58-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Pawlowski, "Thick laser coatings: A review," J. Therm. Spray Technol. 8, 279-295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Escoubas, A. Gatto, G. Albrand, P. Roche, and M. Commandre, "Solarization of glass substrates during thin-film deposition," Appl. Opt. 37, 1883-1889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Johansen and G. Kastner, "Surface quality and laser-damage behaviour of chemo-mechanically polished CaF2 single crystals characterized by scanning electron microscopy," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 3839-3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1977 (1)

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

1973 (1)

Albrand, G.

Amra, C.

Apel, O.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Apfel, J. H.

C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, and E. Pelletier, "Role of Interface Correlation in Light-Scattering by a Multilayer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3134-3151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

Arens, W.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bates, A. K.

Bernitzki, H.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boling, N. L.

Bosch, S.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Commandre, M.

Couprie, M. E.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, M. D.

De Tomasi, F.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dube, G.

Duparre, A.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferre-Borrull, A. Duparre, and E. Quesnel, "Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enemark, E. A.

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

Escoubas, L.

Ettrich, K.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eva, E.

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Optics developments in the VUV - soft X-ray spectral region," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Garzella, D.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gatto, A.

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Optics developments in the VUV - soft X-ray spectral region," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Escoubas, A. Gatto, G. Albrand, P. Roche, and M. Commandre, "Solarization of glass substrates during thin-film deposition," Appl. Opt. 37, 1883-1889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giannessi, L.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grenville, A.

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, "Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications," Opt. Lett. 24, 58-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gunster, S.

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, D.

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, D. E.

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J.

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Optics developments in the VUV - soft X-ray spectral region," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, H.

H. Johansen and G. Kastner, "Surface quality and laser-damage behaviour of chemo-mechanically polished CaF2 single crystals characterized by scanning electron microscopy," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 3839-3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Optics developments in the VUV - soft X-ray spectral region," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kastner, G.

H. Johansen and G. Kastner, "Surface quality and laser-damage behaviour of chemo-mechanically polished CaF2 single crystals characterized by scanning electron microscopy," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 3839-3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, J.

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lauth, H.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, V.

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, "Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications," Opt. Lett. 24, 58-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Locatelli, A.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K. R.

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marsi, M.

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinu, L.

L. Martinu and D. Poltras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mertin, M.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

Nahon, L.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nutarelli, D.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palmacci, S. T.

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pawlowski, L.

L. Pawlowski, "Thick laser coatings: A review," J. Therm. Spray Technol. 8, 279-295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peiro, F.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Perrone, M. R.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piegari, A.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Poltras, D.

L. Martinu and D. Poltras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poole, M. W.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Protopapa, M. L.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quesnel, E.

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferre-Borrull, A. Duparre, and E. Quesnel, "Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renault, E.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

Rothschild, M.

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, "Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications," Opt. Lett. 24, 58-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, D.

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, D.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sedlacek, J. H. C.

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, "Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications," Opt. Lett. 24, 58-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

Switkes, M.

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trovo, M.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ullmann, J.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uttaro, R. S.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. Grenville, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, "Excimer-laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride for 193-nm lithographic applications," Opt. Lett. 24, 58-60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Peski, C.

Walker, R. P.

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

Welsch, E.

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zaczek, C.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

H. Johansen and G. Kastner, "Surface quality and laser-damage behaviour of chemo-mechanically polished CaF2 single crystals characterized by scanning electron microscopy," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 3839-3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, and A. Grenville, "Excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica: laser-fluence and material-grade effects on the scaling law," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 159-171 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Therm. Spray Technol. (1)

L. Pawlowski, "Thick laser coatings: A review," J. Therm. Spray Technol. 8, 279-295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

M. L. Protopapa, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, A. Piegari, E. Masetti, D. Ristau, E. Quesnel, and A. Duparre, "Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 681-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poltras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

NIST Spec. Publ. (1)

J. H. Apfel, E. A. Enemark, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, and M. J. Weber, "Effects of barrier layers and surface smoothness on 150-ps, 1.064 µm laser damage of AR coatings on glass," NIST Spec. Publ. 5009, 255, (1977).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, "Optics developments in the VUV - soft X-ray spectral region," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Gunster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, and R. P. Walker, "High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 357-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, and N. Kaiser, "Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films," Opt. Eng. 36, 504-514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc SPIE (3)

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, R., D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, and N. Kaiser, "Coated optics for DUV excimer laser application," Proc SPIE 3902,514-527 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Switkes, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Long-Term 193-nm Laser Irradiation of Thin-Film-Coated CaF2 in the Presence of H2O," Proc SPIE 5754,646-654 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparre, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV lithography applications," Proc SPIE 3334, 1048-1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

H. Blaschke, W. Arens, D. Ristau, S. Martin, B. Li, and E. Welsch, "Thickness dependence of damage thresholds for 193-nm dielectric mirrors by predamage sensitive photothermal technique," Proc. SPIE 3902, 242-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, and D. Schaefer, "UV-laser investigation of dielectric thin films," Proc. SPIE 2714, 426-439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. V. Tikhonravov, "UV-optical and microstructural properties of MgF2-coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes," Proc. SPIE 3738, 436-445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparre, O. Apel, K. Mann, R., H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, and H. Heyer, "Properties of fluoride DUV excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers," Proc. SPIE 3902, 250-259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, S. T. Palmacci, D. Hardy, M. Rothschild, and A. Grenville, "Controlled Contamination Studies in 193-nm Immersion Lithography," Proc. SPIE 5754, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Marsi, A. Locatelli, M. Trovo, R. P. Walker, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, L. Nahon, D. Nutarelli, E. Renault, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, D. Ristau, M. W. Poole, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, "UV/VUV free electron laser oscillators and applications in materials science," Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 599-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. R. Clar, M. J. Dejneka, R. L. Maier, and J. Wang, "Extended lifetime excimer laser optics," US Patent 7242843 (2007).

R. J. Rafac, A. Lukashev, and W. Zhang Kevin, "Method and apparatus for stabilizing optical dielectric coatings," US Patent 20050008789 (2005).

N. I. o. A. I. S. a. Technology, "Raman Spectra Database of Minerals and Inorganic Materials (RASMIN)" (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology), retrieved http://riodb.ibase.aist.go.jp/rasmin/.

Q. Williams, Infrared, Raman and Optical Spectroscopy of Earth Materials, Mineral Physics and Crystallography - A Handbook of Physical Constants (American Geophysical Union Washington, D.C, 1995), Vol. AGU Reference Shelf 2, pp. 291-302.

N. Beermann, H. Blaschke, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, D. Wulff-Molder, S. Jukresch, A. Matern, C. F. Strowitzki, A. Görtler, M. B. Gäbler, and N. Kaiser, "Long Term Tests of Resonator Optics in ArF Excimer Lasers," in XVII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers & High Power Lasers 2008, 2008),

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Surface damage of an uncoated CaF2 mirror. (a) Optical image of the entire damaged area. Size of the beam profile (3.5 × 10 mm2). (b) Detailed optical image of a structure at the boundary of the damage area. The white crosses give the position of the Raman spectra in Fig. 2. The red rectangle is the area of interest of the micro-Raman image in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Top) Single Raman spectra measured with 10 s integration time as indicated in Fig. 1. (Bottom) Reference Raman spectra of pure crystals from the RASMIN database [26]. The characteristic peaks for CaF2 (330 cm-1) and CaCO3 (155 cm-1, 284 cm-1, 713 cm-1 and 1089 cm-1) are clearly visible in the measured spectra. The sum filter window used for CaF2 (bright blue) and CaCO3 (grey) mapping are indicated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Micro-Raman analysis of the exterior surface as indicated in Fig. 1 (image size: 18.6 × 8.6 μm2) .The images consist of 160 spectra per line and 80 lines per image. (a) Map of the CaF2 lattice mode (filter window: 315 – 355 cm-1) and the (b) CO3 symmetric stretch mode (1080 – 1110 cm-1). With decreasing CaF2 peak intensity the peak intensity of CaCO3 increases. The size of the CaCO3 (calcite) particles is 2 – 3 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface damage of an uncoated CaF2 mirror. (a) Optical image of the damage area. The black line indicates the location of the vertical profile; Raman images of the (b) sum filtered CaF2 lattice mode (315 – 355 cm-1) and the (c) sum filtered CO3 symmetric stretch mode (1080–1110 cm-1). The white line in (c) indicates the sample surface. The altered material was found at about 0.8 μm above the CaF2 surface and up to 2 μm below. (b) and (c): Raman images, 1.5 s integration time, image size: 15 μm × 8 μm2, starting 3 μm above the surface.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Surface damage on a CaF2 mirror with MgF2 protection layer. (a) Optical image of the damage area. The black line indicates the location of the vertical profile. Raman maps of the (b) CaF2 lattice mode, the (c) MgF2 lattice mode, and (d) the CO3 symmetric stretch mode. The white arrows indicate calcite. The spectra were acquired with 1.5 s integration time. The slice was taken from 3 μm above to 5 μm beneath the surface.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Surface damage on an unprotected CaF2 mirror. SEM (a, b), TEM (c) images and EDX composition map (c insert). (a) SEM image of the surface at the damaged region. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image and movie (Media 1) at the edge of the damaged region. Cutting was done by FIB technique at NVision instrument (ZEISS, Oberkochen). (c) TEM collage image of the subsurface region: (I) deposited protecting Pt/C layer, (II) dendrites with protective Au deposited layer (dark), (III) pores (cracks), (IV) bulk CaF2 material, dark curved lines on the matrix indicate perfect crystallinity, (V) inclusions of the material distinct from the matrix (these regions are seen in dark field TEM images (not shown here) and at EDX maps). Inset in (c) is a RGB (Ca, F, O) composite image of the EDX elemental maps of the region marked by a rectangle. The oxygen peak is overlain by a minor Au peak, resulting in an artefact surface layer at oxygen map. The maximum oxygen content was found at the positions indicated by the arrows. Fluorine and gold are absent in these areas.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Tomographic reconstruction of the subsurface region. Images represent subsequent slices parallel to the surface going into the depth of the sample; the depth is indicated on corresponding images. Below 0.6 μm slice cuts in two other complementary directions are shown, revealing a 3D conical shape of the round pore and a crack on top of it.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Peak assignment for Figs. 2 and 3 a

Equations (2)

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CaF2+2H2O+CO2Ca(OH)F+HF+CO2
Ca(OH)2+2HF+CO2CaCO3+2HF+H2O

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