Abstract

We investigate the dependence of the nonlinear optical properties of Cu-doped and Ag-doped As2Se3 glasses on the incident pulse-width at 1.064 μm using the Z-scan technique. In this work, 11.5-ns optical pulses from a Nd:YAG laser were compressed up to 1.6 ns by using stimulated Brillouin scattering in heavy fluorocarbon liquid. The measurement of the pulse-width dependence of the optical nonlinearities leads to the separation of an ultrafast Kerr nonlinearity and a slow (cumulative) nonlinearity such as a thermal nonlinearity. The measured values of the nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of 4 at.% Cu-doped As2Se3 glass (where the normal photodarkening effect is sufficiently suppressed) and 4 at.% Ag-doped As2Se3 glass were proportional to the pulse width, showing that the cumulative nonlinearity is present in these two glasses. The cumulative nonlinearity of these doped glasses is larger than one of the undoped glass. The origin of such slow nonlinearity is presumably attributed to the photostructural changes inherent in chalcogenide glasses and is directly independent of one of photodarkening.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16(10), 633–643 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Abedin, “Observation of strong stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10266–10271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, Y. Hosokawa, S. Maeda, M. Minakata, and H. Li, “Photo-oxidation of As2Se3, Ag-As2Se3, and Cu-As2Se3 chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(37-39), 3132–3138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

K. Ogusu, T. Kumagai, Y. Fujimori, and M. Kitao, “Thermal analysis and Raman scattering study on crystallization and structure of Agx(As0.4Se0.6)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gheorghiu-de La Rocque, E. Belin-Ferré, M. F. Fontaine, and G. J. Adriaenssens, “XPS studies of Cu incorporation in arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 953–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Effect of Cu alloying on metastable photoinduced absorption in Cux(As0.4Se0.6)1-x and Cux(As0.4S0.6)1-x glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3163–3171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photostructural change: Mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36, 1023–1034 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

Adriaenssens, G. J.

A. Gheorghiu-de La Rocque, E. Belin-Ferré, M. F. Fontaine, and G. J. Adriaenssens, “XPS studies of Cu incorporation in arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 953–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Baker, N. J.

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belin-Ferré, E.

A. Gheorghiu-de La Rocque, E. Belin-Ferré, M. F. Fontaine, and G. J. Adriaenssens, “XPS studies of Cu incorporation in arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 953–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belykh, A. V.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Couderc, V.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Finsterbusch, K.

Fontaine, M. F.

A. Gheorghiu-de La Rocque, E. Belin-Ferré, M. F. Fontaine, and G. J. Adriaenssens, “XPS studies of Cu incorporation in arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 953–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Fujimori, Y.

K. Ogusu, T. Kumagai, Y. Fujimori, and M. Kitao, “Thermal analysis and Raman scattering study on crystallization and structure of Agx(As0.4Se0.6)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gheorghiu-de La Rocque, A.

A. Gheorghiu-de La Rocque, E. Belin-Ferré, M. F. Fontaine, and G. J. Adriaenssens, “XPS studies of Cu incorporation in arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 953–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagihara, T.

K. Ogusu, T. Hagihara, Y. Hosokawa, and M. Minakata, “Dependence of photo-oxidation on Ag(Cu)-content in Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1216–1220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Hodelin, J.

Hosokawa, Y.

K. Ogusu, T. Hagihara, Y. Hosokawa, and M. Minakata, “Dependence of photo-oxidation on Ag(Cu)-content in Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1216–1220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, Y. Hosokawa, S. Maeda, M. Minakata, and H. Li, “Photo-oxidation of As2Se3, Ag-As2Se3, and Cu-As2Se3 chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(37-39), 3132–3138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

Kitao, M.

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, H. Li, and M. Kitao, “Brillouin-gain coefficients of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(7), 1302–1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, H. Li, and M. Minakata, “Optical and structural properties of Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 chalcogenide films prepared by a photodoping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, T. Kumagai, Y. Fujimori, and M. Kitao, “Thermal analysis and Raman scattering study on crystallization and structure of Agx(As0.4Se0.6)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

K. Ogusu, T. Kumagai, Y. Fujimori, and M. Kitao, “Thermal analysis and Raman scattering study on crystallization and structure of Agx(As0.4Se0.6)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lenz, G.

Li, H.

K. Ogusu, Y. Hosokawa, S. Maeda, M. Minakata, and H. Li, “Photo-oxidation of As2Se3, Ag-As2Se3, and Cu-As2Se3 chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(37-39), 3132–3138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, H. Li, and M. Kitao, “Brillouin-gain coefficients of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(7), 1302–1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, H. Li, and M. Minakata, “Optical and structural properties of Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 chalcogenide films prepared by a photodoping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. Z.

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Effect of Cu alloying on metastable photoinduced absorption in Cux(As0.4Se0.6)1-x and Cux(As0.4S0.6)1-x glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3163–3171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Maeda, S.

K. Ogusu, Y. Hosokawa, S. Maeda, M. Minakata, and H. Li, “Photo-oxidation of As2Se3, Ag-As2Se3, and Cu-As2Se3 chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(37-39), 3132–3138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, H. Li, and M. Minakata, “Optical and structural properties of Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 chalcogenide films prepared by a photodoping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, Yu. A.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mekryukov, A. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, M. D.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minakata, M.

K. Ogusu, T. Hagihara, Y. Hosokawa, and M. Minakata, “Dependence of photo-oxidation on Ag(Cu)-content in Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1216–1220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, Y. Hosokawa, S. Maeda, M. Minakata, and H. Li, “Photo-oxidation of As2Se3, Ag-As2Se3, and Cu-As2Se3 chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(37-39), 3132–3138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, H. Li, and M. Minakata, “Optical and structural properties of Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 chalcogenide films prepared by a photodoping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Nguyen, H. C.

Nguyen, V. Q.

Nishio, H.

Ogusu, K.

K. Shinkawa and K. Ogusu, “Pulse-width dependence of optical nonlinearities in As2Se3 chalcogenide glass in the picosecond-to-nanosecond region,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18230–18240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu and K. Shinkawa, “Optical nonlinearities in silicon for pulse durations of the order of nanoseconds at 1.06 microm,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14780–14791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, T. Hagihara, Y. Hosokawa, and M. Minakata, “Dependence of photo-oxidation on Ag(Cu)-content in Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1216–1220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, K. Suzuki, and H. Nishio, “Simple and accurate measurement of the absorption coefficient of an absorbing plate by use of the Brewster angle,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 909–911 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, Y. Hosokawa, S. Maeda, M. Minakata, and H. Li, “Photo-oxidation of As2Se3, Ag-As2Se3, and Cu-As2Se3 chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(37-39), 3132–3138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, H. Li, and M. Kitao, “Brillouin-gain coefficients of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(7), 1302–1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ogusu, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, H. Li, and M. Minakata, “Optical and structural properties of Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 chalcogenide films prepared by a photodoping,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, T. Kumagai, Y. Fujimori, and M. Kitao, “Thermal analysis and Raman scattering study on crystallization and structure of Agx(As0.4Se0.6)1-x glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quemard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

Shaw, L. B.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinkawa, K.

Slusher, R. E.

Smektala, F.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Effect of Cu alloying on metastable photoinduced absorption in Cux(As0.4Se0.6)1-x and Cux(As0.4S0.6)1-x glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3163–3171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16(10), 633–643 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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K. Ogusu, T. Hagihara, Y. Hosokawa, and M. Minakata, “Dependence of photo-oxidation on Ag(Cu)-content in Ag(Cu)-As2Se3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1216–1220 (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Mag. Lett.

K. Tanaka, “Midgap photon effects in As2S3 glass,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 84(9), 601–606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Effect of Cu alloying on metastable photoinduced absorption in Cux(As0.4Se0.6)1-x and Cux(As0.4S0.6)1-x glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3163–3171 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of (a) the effective nonlinear refractive index n 2eff and (b) the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient β eff on the incident pulse energy for the pulse width t FWHM = 11.5 ns at 1.064 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of (a) the effective nonlinear refractive index n 2eff and (b) the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient β eff on the incident pulse-width t FWHM. The data were obtained at an incident pulse energy of 15 μJ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of (a) the effective nonlinear refractive index n 2eff and (b) the effective nonlinear absorption coefficient β eff on the incident pulse energy for the pulse width t FWHM = 1.6 ns at 1.064 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time-varying transmission of the undoped As2Se3 glass when an 11.5-ns and 15-μJ optical pulse is incident into it. (b) The input-output characteristics for three values of incident pulse energy.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The measured linear and nonlinear optical coefficients of undoped and Cu(Ag)-doped As2Se3 glasses at 1.064 μm. The concentration of Cu and Ag is 4 at.%.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n2eff=γ+σr(α2ωπtFWHM2ln2),
βeff=β+σab(α2ωπtFWHM2ln2),
n2eff=γ+dndTα2ρCπtFWHM2ln2,

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