Inspired by the biomechanics of the human eye, which includes a crystalline lens, ciliary muscles, and zonular fibers, the proposed variable-focus lens system consists of a PDMS lens, winding-type SMA actuator, and load arms. The PDMS lens is encircled and stretched by the load arms joined to an outer ring that is rotated by the winding-type SMA actuator, thereby changing the focal length of the lens. In contrast to other single tunable-focus lenses, the proposed system uses a gel-type PDMS lens, which is insensitive to gravity and external vibration, and can be made into a biconvex or aspheric shape. The design of the proposed system is described in detail, and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed system.
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