Abstract

We report the generation of quasi-continuous-wave vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) coherent light based on a Ti:sapphire laser with two successive frequency doubling stages. In the first stage, UV light at 399 nm with power of 1.1 W was obtained by exploiting an enhanced cavity. With a KBBF crystal as nonlinear material, quasi-continuous-wave VUV coherent light with power of about 25 mW at 199.5 nm and 4.7 mW at 193.5 nm were achieved through a single-pass SHG configuration, respectively, in the second stage.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
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2008 (6)

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, T. Kanai, X.Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and S. Watanabe, "High-average-power light source below 200 nm from a KBe2BO3F2 prism-coupled device," Opt. Lett. 33, 282-284 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

1995 (1)

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

Bo, Y.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chen, T. Kanai, X.Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and S. Watanabe, "High-average-power light source below 200 nm from a KBe2BO3F2 prism-coupled device," Opt. Lett. 33, 282-284 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, T. Togashi, C. T. Chen, C. Q. Zhang, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, "Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light below 160 nm in a KBBF crystal by the fifth harmonic of a single-mode Ti:sapphire laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 370-375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Togashi, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, C. T. Chen, C. Q. Zhang, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, "Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light by an optically contacted prism-coupled KBBF crystal," Opt. Lett. 28, 254-256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geng, A.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

Imajo, H.

Kanai, T.

Kanda, T.

Kasai, K.

Kimble, H. J.

Li, C.

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. M.

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohmukai, R.

Peng, Q. J.

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polzik, E. S.

Sekikawa, T.

Togashi, T.

Urabe, S.

Wang, G. L.

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, X.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Y.

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.Y.

Wang, Y. B.

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, S.

Wu, B. C.

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. C.

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, T. Togashi, C. T. Chen, C. Q. Zhang, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, "Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light below 160 nm in a KBBF crystal by the fifth harmonic of a single-mode Ti:sapphire laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 370-375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Togashi, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, C. T. Chen, C. Q. Zhang, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, "Generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light by an optically contacted prism-coupled KBBF crystal," Opt. Lett. 28, 254-256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.Y.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. H.

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, W. L.

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Q.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, Y.

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, C. M. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "High-efficiency frequency conversion in deep ultraviolet with a KBBF prism-coupled device," Appl. Opt. 47, 486-488 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chen, T. Kanai, X.Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and S. Watanabe, "High-average-power light source below 200 nm from a KBe2BO3F2 prism-coupled device," Opt. Lett. 33, 282-284 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, and C. T. Chen, "12.95 mW sixth harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 91, 95-97 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, G. L. Wang, L. Guo, A. Geng, Y. Bo, D. Cui, Z.Y. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, and C. T. Chen, "175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal," Appl. Phys. B 93, 317-320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phy. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhu, G. L. Wang, C. M. Li, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. T. Chen, "Sixth harmonic of a Nd:YA4 laser generation in KBBF for ARPES," Chin. Phy. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. T. Chen, G. L. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Xu, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, "Improved sellmeier equations and phase matching characteristics in deep ultraviolet region of KBBF crystal," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 617-621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

C. T. Chen, Y. B. Wang, B. C. Wu, K. C. Wu, W. L. Zeng, and L. H. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear-optical crystal KBBF," Nature 373, 322-325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Third version), Academic Pr. (2008).

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, C. Chen, C. Zhang, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Wang, "Generation of vacuum ultraviolet light and measurement of phase matching angles in KBBF crystal," presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CTuM1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for generation VUV with KBBF crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Second-harmonic output power as a function of the reflectivity of the input coupler mirror. The experimental and theoretical values are shown by filled square and the solid curve.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Second-harmonic output power P 2 at 399 nm and conversion efficiency versus input fundamental power P 1 at 798 nm. The solid curve is the theoretical prediction based on the independently measured single-pass conversion efficiency and estimated intracavity losses and mode-matching factor. The experimental points labeled by filled circles are output power and the points labeled by triangles are the conversion efficiency.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

VUV output power (a) and conversion efficiency (b) at 199.5 nm by an SHG with a KBBF crystal. The filled circles are experimental data and curve is best fitting with Pout =E NL2 Pin 2, giving E NL2 = 0.02W-1. The triangles are the measured conversion efficiency and solid line is linear fitting, give a E NL2 = 0.019W-1.

Equations (3)

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P2=T2ENLPc2 ,
PcP1=4Tm(T+L+ENLPc)2 ,
PrP1=(1T)(1m)+(TLENLPc)2(T+L+ENLPc)2m,

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