Abstract

We report on the experimental observation of a novel form of vector soliton interaction in a fiber laser mode-locked with SESAM. Several vector solitons bunch in the cavity and move as a unit with the cavity repetition rate. However, inside the bunch the vector solitons make repeatedly contractive and repulsive motions, resembling the contraction and extension of a spring. The number of vector solitons in the bunch is controllable by changing the pump power. In addition, polarization rotation locking and period doubling bifurcation of the vector soliton bunch are also experimentally observed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).
  2. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Eds. Dissipative solitons Lecture Notes in Physics, V. 661 (Springer, Heidelberg, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Eds. Dissipative Solitons: From optics to biology and medicine Lecture Notes in Physics, V 751, (Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008).
  4. D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J.-M. Soto-Crespo, "Phase-locked soliton pairs in a stretched-pulse fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 966-968 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction," Appl. Phys. B,  80, 239-242 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Multisoliton solutions of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047-4051 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Olivier, V. Roy, M. Piché and F. Babin "Pulse collisions in the stretched-pulse fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1461-1463 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Group interactions of dissipative solitons in a laser cavity: the case 2+1," Opt. Express 12, 3184-3189 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser," Opt. Express 1, 12-20 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, "Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 16, 10053-10058 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. M. J.  Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett.  28, 806-807 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, "Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 16, 10053-10058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction," Appl. Phys. B,  80, 239-242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser," Opt. Express 1, 12-20 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Multisoliton solutions of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047-4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. M. J.  Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett.  28, 806-807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Group interactions of dissipative solitons in a laser cavity: the case 2+1," Opt. Express 12, 3184-3189 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Multisoliton solutions of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047-4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000)
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Multisoliton solutions of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047-4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Babin, F.

Belhache, F.

Bergman, K.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000)
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Drummond, P. D.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Euser, T. G.

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grapinet, M.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

Grelu, Ph.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J.-M. Soto-Crespo, "Phase-locked soliton pairs in a stretched-pulse fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 966-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gutty, F.

Hakulinen, T.

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J.  Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett.  28, 806-807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Laming, R. I.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, S.

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsas, V. J.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, M.

Payne, D. N.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. W.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

Roy, V.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000)
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Multisoliton solutions of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047-4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J.-M.

Suomalainen, S.

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, "Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 16, 10053-10058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction," Appl. Phys. B,  80, 239-242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

Zhang, H.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, "Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 16, 10053-10058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction," Appl. Phys. B,  80, 239-242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, "Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 16, 10053-10058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction," Appl. Phys. B,  80, 239-242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, "Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction," Appl. Phys. B,  80, 239-242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, T. Hakulinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, T. G. Euser, and S. Marcinkevicius, "1 µm saturable absorber with recovery time reduced by lattice mismatch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting femtosecond soliton fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 1451-1452(1991).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J.  Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett.  28, 806-807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, and Ph. Grelu, "Dissipative soliton interactions inside a fiber laser cavity," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 209-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics Commun. (1)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X Wu, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Period-doubling of vector solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Commun. 281, 5614-5617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, "Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Multisoliton solutions of the Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047-4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Eds. Dissipative solitons Lecture Notes in Physics, V. 661 (Springer, Heidelberg, 2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Eds. Dissipative Solitons: From optics to biology and medicine Lecture Notes in Physics, V 751, (Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1731 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fiber laser. EDF: erbium-doped fiber; SESAM: semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; PC: polarization controller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two types of laser operations experimentally measured. (a)/(b) Optical spectra; (c)/(d) Oscilloscope traces.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Snapshot of the vector soliton bunch (50 ps/div, Media 1 1.68MB).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization rotation locking of the vector soliton bunch. (a) Optical spectrum; (b) Oscilloscope trace.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Period doubling of the vector soliton bunch. (a) Oscilloscope trace; (b) RF spectrum.

Metrics