Abstract

Long lengths (250 meters) of a flexible 150 μm diameter glass-clad optical fiber containing a 15 μm diameter crystalline and phase-pure germanium core was fabricated using conventional optical fiber draw techniques. X-ray diffraction and spontaneous Raman scattering measurements showed the core to be very highly crystalline germanium with no observed secondary phases. Elemental analysis confirmed a very well-defined core-clad interface with a step-profile in composition and nominally 4 weight-percent oxygen having diffused into the germanium core from the glass cladding. For this proof-of-concept fiber, polycrystalline n-type germanium of unknown dopant concentration was used. The measured infrared transparency of the starting material was poor and, as a likely outcome, the attenuation of the resultant fiber was too high to be measured. However, the larger Raman cross-section, infrared and terahertz transparency of germanium over silicon should make these fibers of significant value for fiber-based mid- to long-wave infrared and terahertz waveguides and Raman-shifted infrared light sources once high-purity, high-resistivity germanium is employed.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

G. M. Sheldrick, “A short history of SHELX,” Acta Crystallogr. A 64(1), 112–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Jackson, P. Sazio, and J. Badding, “Single crystal semiconductor wires integrated into microstructured optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1135–1140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. Rice, and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a mid-infrared silicon Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14355–14362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Frey, D. Leviton, and T. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1973 (2)

1970 (1)

J. Scott, “Raman spectrum of GeO2,” Phys. Rev. B 1(8), 3488–3493 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate germanium,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aigrain, P.

J. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate germanium,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, M.

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J.

B. Jackson, P. Sazio, and J. Badding, “Single crystal semiconductor wires integrated into microstructured optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1135–1140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballato, J.

Baril, N.

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baril, N. F.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, P.

Borlaug, D.

Boyraz, O.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brill, O.

Calkins, J.

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capron, E.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daw, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Edgington, P. R.

C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, M.

Feldman, D.

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foy, P.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frey, B.

B. Frey, D. Leviton, and T. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A.

Gopalan, V.

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, B.

B. Jackson, P. Sazio, and J. Badding, “Single crystal semiconductor wires integrated into microstructured optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1135–1140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. Rice, and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a mid-infrared silicon Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14355–14362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D.

B. Frey, D. Leviton, and T. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macrae, C. F.

C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madison, T.

B. Frey, D. Leviton, and T. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Margine, E. R.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthewson, M. J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCabe, P.

C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J.

J. Pankove and P. Aigrain, “Optical absorption of arsenic-doped degenerate germanium,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 956–962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J.

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Pidcock, E.

C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Powers, D. R.

Raghunathan, V.

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. Rice, and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a mid-infrared silicon Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14355–14362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M.

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R.

Rice, R. R.

Sanamyan, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P.

B. Jackson, P. Sazio, and J. Badding, “Single crystal semiconductor wires integrated into microstructured optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. 20(6), 1135–1140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P. J.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, J.

J. Scott, “Raman spectrum of GeO2,” Phys. Rev. B 1(8), 3488–3493 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S.

Sheldrick, G. M.

G. M. Sheldrick, “A short history of SHELX,” Acta Crystallogr. A 64(1), 112–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, G. P.

C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shori, R.

Snitzer, E.

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
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C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
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C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tritt, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

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D.-J. Won, M. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. Baril, J. Calkins, J. Badding, and P. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
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C. F. Macrae, P. R. Edgington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, G. P. Shields, R. Taylor, M. Towler, and J. van de Streek, “Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39(3), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the Fabrication of All-Glass Optical Fibers from Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
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P. J. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

[Left] Scanning electron micrograph of the fiber showing the central germanium core and the glass cladding (polymeric coating removed). [Right] Photograph of the coated fiber arranged into a circle of approximately 28 mm radius indicating its flexibility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized intensity versus two-theta angle x-ray diffraction pattern computed from the refined single crystal diffraction data. The stars represent the normalized intensities for those noted crystallographic planes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Elemental analysis of the glass-clad, germanium core optical fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spontaneous Raman scattering spectra of a single crystalline germanium rod and the germanium core of a glass-clad fiber.

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