Abstract

Coherent Optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has been demonstrated for delivering superior performance in spectral efficiency, receiver sensitivity, and polarization-dispersion resilience. Fueled by the rapid advancement in semiconductor technology, high-speed field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and analogue-to-digital-converters/digital-to-analogue converters (ADC/DACs) have been increasingly adopted for digital signal processing in optical communications. In this paper, we report the first FPGA-based real-time implementation of coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) receiver with a transmission rate up to 3.1 Gb/s. Several basic aspects of CO-OFDM signal processing are described in detail, and the BER sensitivity performance are evaluated in real-time. To the best of our knowledge, we have achieved the record real-time reception date rate for a single-input single-output (SISO) coherent OFDM signal, in either RF domain or optical domain.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM reception using orthogonal band multiplexing" in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper PDP7 (2008).
  2. S.L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, "10x121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1,000 km of SSMF," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper PDP 2 (2008).
  3. E. Yamada, A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, K. Yonenaga, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, "1Tb/s (111Gb/s/ch × 10ch) no-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2100 km DSF," OECC/ACOFT Conf., paper PDP6 (2008).
  4. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong "Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper PDP18 (2007).
  5. F. Buchali and R. Dischler, "Optimized sensitivity direct detection O-OFDM with multi level subcarrier modulation," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper OMU5 (2008).
  6. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: has its time come? [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Express 16, 6378-6386 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, and Y. K. Chen, "A real-time CMA-based 10 Gb/s polarization demultiplexing coherent receiver implemented in an FPGA," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper OTuO2 (2008).
  10. H. Song, A. Adamiecki, P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, S. Corteselli, and G. Raybon, "Multiplexing and DQPSK precoding of 10.7-Gb/s client signals to 107 Gb/s using an FPGA", in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., Paper OTuG3 (2008).
  11. H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Express 16, 873-879 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Express 15, 2120-2126 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, and K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, and K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Achiam, Y.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adamczyk, O.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Bhandare, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhargava, V. K.

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, and K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D. C.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gavioli, G.

Hoffmann, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S.K.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

Letaief, K. B.

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, and K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Minn, H.

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, and K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noe, R.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peveling, R.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porrmann, M.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

Schmidl, T. M.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Yang, Q.

Yi, X.

IEEE Trans. Commun.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.

H. Minn, V. K. Bhargava, and K. B. Letaief, "A robust timing and frequency synchronization for OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 822-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Express

Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First real-time data recovery for synchronous QPSK transmission with standard DFB lasers," Photon. Technol. Lett.,  18, 1907-1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, and Y. K. Chen, "A real-time CMA-based 10 Gb/s polarization demultiplexing coherent receiver implemented in an FPGA," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper OTuO2 (2008).

H. Song, A. Adamiecki, P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, S. Corteselli, and G. Raybon, "Multiplexing and DQPSK precoding of 10.7-Gb/s client signals to 107 Gb/s using an FPGA", in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., Paper OTuG3 (2008).

Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM reception using orthogonal band multiplexing" in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper PDP7 (2008).

S.L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, "10x121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1,000 km of SSMF," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper PDP 2 (2008).

E. Yamada, A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, K. Yonenaga, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, "1Tb/s (111Gb/s/ch × 10ch) no-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2100 km DSF," OECC/ACOFT Conf., paper PDP6 (2008).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong "Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper PDP18 (2007).

F. Buchali and R. Dischler, "Optimized sensitivity direct detection O-OFDM with multi level subcarrier modulation," in Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., paper OMU5 (2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Digital signal processing for a real-time CO-OFDM receiver.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

High-speed signal de-multiplexing scheme: (a) de-multiplexing at ADC side; (b) de-multiplexing at FPGA side.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for the real-time CO-OFDM receiver.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Real-time measurement of the timing metric for the CO-OFDM signal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Real-time measurement of frequency offset estimation for the OFDM signal. The frequency offset is normalized to 2/(πT).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Real-time phase noise as a function of OFDM symbol sequence.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The real-time BER performance for CO-OFDM signal at the back-to-back transmission.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M(d)=(4P(d)3R(d))2
P(d)=k=0N/41[r*(d+k) r (d+k+N4) +r*(d+k+N2)r(d+k+N2)r*(d+k+N2)r(d+k+3N4)]
R(d)=m=03k=0N/41r(d+k+mN4)2
di=arg{max[M(d)]}
φ̂=arg(P(d))
Δ f =ϕ̂/(πT/2)
rc(t)=exp(j2πΔft)r(t)
ĥk=i=1pej∠rk1irki/cki
ϕi=arg(k=1Nprkihk*cki*)

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