Abstract

We develop a fast and accurate method that is able to automatically select and match a large amount of ground control regions (GCRs) for orthorectifying remote sensing imagery. This new method is comprised of four modules, namely automatic extraction of GCRs, fast image-to-image matching, iterating and filtering of GCRs, and rigorous orthorectification. We assess the accuracy of this new method by processing the high-temporal- and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery. Results show that the accurate orthoimage with a root mean square error of less than 1.5 pixels can be automatically generated from one standard Formosat-2 image (covering 12km × 12 km) in 55 minutes. This new method has been incorporated into the Formosat-2 automatic image processing system and has been used to produce orthoimages on a daily-basis.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. C.-C. Liu, “Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206–3214 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).
  8. C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).
  10. M. Gianinetto and M. Scaioni, “Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74,107–115 (2008).
  11. T. Toutin, “Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25,1893–1924 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, “The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72, 573–579 (2006).
  13. H. I. El-Gamily, “Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991.,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773–1788 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, “Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5–22 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Altmaier and C. Kany, “Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 56, 221–235 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.
  17. A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).
  18. C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, “Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir,” in preparation (2008).
  19. R.-J. You and H.-W. Hwang, “Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation,” Journal of Surveying Engineering 132, 64–70 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.
  21. T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).
  22. W. Förstner, “A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching,” International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing 26, 150–166 (1986).
  23. A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics,” Geographical Analysis 24, 189–206 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “Local Spatial Statistics: An Overview,” in Spatial Analysis: Modelling In a GIS Environment, P. Longley and M. Batty, eds. (Geoinformation International, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 261–277.
  25. J. K. Ord and A. Getis, “Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application,” Geographical Analysis 27, 286–306 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. P. Lewis, “Fast Template Matching,” Vision Interface, 120–123 (1995).
  27. J. G. Liu and J. Ma, “Imageodsey on MPI & GRID for co-seismic shift study using satellite optical imagery,” in Prob. of the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting 2004 (Nottingham, UK, 2004), pp. 232–239.
  28. D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, “Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction,” Applied Geography 25, 159–168 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2009 (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).

M. Gianinetto and M. Scaioni, “Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74,107–115 (2008).

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

H. I. El-Gamily, “Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991.,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773–1788 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, “Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5–22 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, “The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72, 573–579 (2006).

R.-J. You and H.-W. Hwang, “Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation,” Journal of Surveying Engineering 132, 64–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, “Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206–3214 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, “Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction,” Applied Geography 25, 159–168 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. Toutin, “Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25,1893–1924 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

2002 (1)

A. Altmaier and C. Kany, “Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 56, 221–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “Local Spatial Statistics: An Overview,” in Spatial Analysis: Modelling In a GIS Environment, P. Longley and M. Batty, eds. (Geoinformation International, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 261–277.

1995 (2)

J. K. Ord and A. Getis, “Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application,” Geographical Analysis 27, 286–306 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. P. Lewis, “Fast Template Matching,” Vision Interface, 120–123 (1995).

1992 (1)

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics,” Geographical Analysis 24, 189–206 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

W. Förstner, “A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching,” International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing 26, 150–166 (1986).

Altmaier, A.

A. Altmaier and C. Kany, “Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 56, 221–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baillarin, S.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Bang, K.-I.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Bekhti, M.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bohlander, J.

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Boland, L.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bouillon, A.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Breton, E.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Chang, Y.-C.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.

Chen, L. C.

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, “The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72, 573–579 (2006).

Chipman, J. W.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

Cooksley, J.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cunin, L.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Curiel, A. da Silva

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Delvit, J. M.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Eckardt, F.

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, “Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5–22 (2007).
[Crossref]

El-Gamily, H. I.

H. I. El-Gamily, “Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991.,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773–1788 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fastook, J.

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Flicker, H. A.

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Förstner, W.

W. Förstner, “A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching,” International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing 26, 150–166 (1986).

Getis, A.

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “Local Spatial Statistics: An Overview,” in Spatial Analysis: Modelling In a GIS Environment, P. Longley and M. Batty, eds. (Geoinformation International, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 261–277.

J. K. Ord and A. Getis, “Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application,” Geographical Analysis 27, 286–306 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics,” Geographical Analysis 24, 189–206 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gianinetto, M.

M. Gianinetto and M. Scaioni, “Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74,107–115 (2008).

Gleyzes, J. P.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Habib, A.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Hamandawana, H.

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, “Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5–22 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, R.

C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, “Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir,” in preparation (2008).

Huang, S.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, F.-T.

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.

Hwang, H.-W.

R.-J. You and H.-W. Hwang, “Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation,” Journal of Surveying Engineering 132, 64–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kany, C.

A. Altmaier and C. Kany, “Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 56, 221–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kato, S.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, R. W.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

Kim, C.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Kim, E.-M.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Kim, K.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Krischke, M.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

Latry, C.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Lee, D.-C.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Lewis, J. P.

J. P. Lewis, “Fast Template Matching,” Vision Interface, 120–123 (1995).

Lillesand, T. M.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

Lin, C.-W.

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.-C.

C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, “Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir,” in preparation (2008).

Liu, C.

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.

Liu, C.-C.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, “Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206–3214 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, “Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir,” in preparation (2008).

Liu, J. G.

J. G. Liu and J. Ma, “Imageodsey on MPI & GRID for co-seismic shift study using satellite optical imagery,” in Prob. of the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting 2004 (Nottingham, UK, 2004), pp. 232–239.

Liu, J. L.

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, “The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72, 573–579 (2006).

Liu, J.-G

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.-H.

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

J. G. Liu and J. Ma, “Imageodsey on MPI & GRID for co-seismic shift study using satellite optical imagery,” in Prob. of the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting 2004 (Nottingham, UK, 2004), pp. 232–239.

Massom, R.

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Melesse, A. M.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ord, J. K.

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “Local Spatial Statistics: An Overview,” in Spatial Analysis: Modelling In a GIS Environment, P. Longley and M. Batty, eds. (Geoinformation International, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 261–277.

J. K. Ord and A. Getis, “Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application,” Geographical Analysis 27, 286–306 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics,” Geographical Analysis 24, 189–206 (1992).
[Crossref]

Oxfort, M.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ringrose, S.

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, “Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5–22 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rita, A. Di

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, “Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction,” Applied Geography 25, 159–168 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rocchini, D.

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, “Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction,” Applied Geography 25, 159–168 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sargent, A.

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Scaioni, M.

M. Gianinetto and M. Scaioni, “Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74,107–115 (2008).

Scambos, T.

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Schulten, D.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

Senay, G. B.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shieh, C.-L.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, “Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir,” in preparation (2008).

Shieh, M.-L.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).

Shin, S.-W.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

Stephens, P. S.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sweeting, M. N.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Teo, T. A.

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, “The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72, 573–579 (2006).

Thenkabail, P. S.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Toutin, T.

T. Toutin, “Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25,1893–1924 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tulip, J.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tyc, G.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vesco, C.

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

Wei,

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weng, Q.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, A.-M.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.

Wu, A-M.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

Wu, C.-A.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).

Wu, F.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-C.

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.

Yamaguchi, Y.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yen, S.-Y.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

You, R.-J.

R.-J. You and H.-W. Hwang, “Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation,” Journal of Surveying Engineering 132, 64–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Acta Astronautica (2)

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, “First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC),” Acta Astronautica 56, 261–271 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, “The RapidEye mission design,” Acta Astronautica 56, 213–219 (2005).
[Crossref]

Antarctic Science (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2,” Antarctic Science 20, 605–606 (2008).
[Crossref]

Applied Geography (1)

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, “Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction,” Applied Geography 25, 159–168 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cold Regions Science and Technology (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery,” Cold Regions Science and Technology 55,14–22 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geographical Analysis (2)

J. K. Ord and A. Getis, “Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application,” Geographical Analysis 27, 286–306 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics,” Geographical Analysis 24, 189–206 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C.-C. Liu, “Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206–3214 (2006).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (4)

C.-C. Liu, J.-G Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, “Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093–3111 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. I. El-Gamily, “Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991.,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773–1788 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, “Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5–22 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Toutin, “Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25,1893–1924 (2004).
[Crossref]

International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing (1)

W. Förstner, “A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching,” International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing 26, 150–166 (1986).

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (1)

A. Altmaier and C. Kany, “Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 56, 221–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

Journal of Surveying Engineering (1)

R.-J. You and H.-W. Hwang, “Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation,” Journal of Surveying Engineering 132, 64–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (3)

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, “The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72, 573–579 (2006).

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, “Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 1241–1251 (2007).

M. Gianinetto and M. Scaioni, “Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74,107–115 (2008).

Sensors (1)

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, “Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling,” Sensors 7, 3209–3241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vision Interface (1)

J. P. Lewis, “Fast Template Matching,” Vision Interface, 120–123 (1995).

Other (8)

J. G. Liu and J. Ma, “Imageodsey on MPI & GRID for co-seismic shift study using satellite optical imagery,” in Prob. of the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting 2004 (Nottingham, UK, 2004), pp. 232–239.

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image,” in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465–470.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “Local Spatial Statistics: An Overview,” in Spatial Analysis: Modelling In a GIS Environment, P. Longley and M. Batty, eds. (Geoinformation International, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 261–277.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, “Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery,” River Research and Applications, (in press) (2008).

T. Scambos, H. A. Flicker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A-M. Wu, “Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, (accepted) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, “Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir,” in preparation (2008).

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, “Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing,” in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398–1401.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geographic location of the study areas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Gao-Ping River.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Tseng-Wen Reservoir.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flowchart of the procedures that we employed to automatically extract the GCRs. The grey-filled box indicates the head of an iteration structure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Overlay of six selected GCRs on one tile image (1km × 1km)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Examples of coregistered scenes on Formosat-2 level-1A images (left column) and the orthorectified aerial photos (right column) using our module. (a) CSR, (b) GPR, and (c) TWR.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Overlay of the error vectors on the Formosat-2 Level-1A image of Chiu-Shui River. The red arrows indicate the error vectors, the lengths of which are elongated one hundred times for illustration purposes.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Overlay of the error vectors on the Formosat-2 Level-1A image of Gao-Ping River. The red arrows indicate the error vectors, the lengths of which are elongated one hundred times for illustration purposes.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Overlay of the error vectors on the Formosat-2 Level-1A image of Tseng-Wen Reservoir. The red arrows indicate the error vectors, the lengths of which are elongated one hundred times for illustration purposes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Dates and viewing angles of Formosat-2 images

Tables Icon

Table 2. Assessment of automatically-orthorectified Formosat-2 images

Equations (1)

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Gi(d)j=1nwij(d)xj/j=1nxj,

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