Abstract

We develop a fast and accurate method that is able to automatically select and match a large amount of ground control regions (GCRs) for orthorectifying remote sensing imagery. This new method is comprised of four modules, namely automatic extraction of GCRs, fast image-to-image matching, iterating and filtering of GCRs, and rigorous orthorectification. We assess the accuracy of this new method by processing the high-temporal- and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery. Results show that the accurate orthoimage with a root mean square error of less than 1.5 pixels can be automatically generated from one standard Formosat-2 image (covering 12km × 12 km) in 55 minutes. This new method has been incorporated into the Formosat-2 automatic image processing system and has been used to produce orthoimages on a daily-basis.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
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  8. C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, "Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery," River. Res. Appl. (in press) (2008).

M. Gianinetto, and M. Scaioni, "Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 74, 107-115 (2008).

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. I. El-Gamily, "Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773-1788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, "Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

2006 (3)

R.-J. You, and H.-W. Hwang, "Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation," J. Surv. Eng. 132, 64-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, "The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 72, 573-579 (2006).

C.-C. Liu, "Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206-3214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, "Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction," Appl. Geography 25, 159-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Toutin, "Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1893-1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Altmaier, and C. Kany, "Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 56, 221-235 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. K. Ord, and A. Getis, "Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application," Geogr. Anal. 27, 286-306 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Getis, and J. K. Ord, "The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics," Geogr. Anal. 24, 189-206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

W. Förstner, "A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching," Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 26, 150-166 (1986).

Altmaier, A.

A. Altmaier, and C. Kany, "Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 56, 221-235 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bang, K.-I.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Bekhti, M.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bohlander, J.

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Boland, L.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, "The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 72, 573-579 (2006).

Cooksley, J.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

da Silva Curiel, A.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Rita, A.

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, "Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction," Appl. Geography 25, 159-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, F.

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, "Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Gamily, H. I.

H. I. El-Gamily, "Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773-1788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fastook, J.

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Förstner, W.

W. Förstner, "A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching," Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 26, 150-166 (1986).

Fricker, H. A.

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Getis, A.

J. K. Ord, and A. Getis, "Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application," Geogr. Anal. 27, 286-306 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Getis, and J. K. Ord, "The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics," Geogr. Anal. 24, 189-206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gianinetto, M.

M. Gianinetto, and M. Scaioni, "Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 74, 107-115 (2008).

Habib, A.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Hamandawana, H.

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, "Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H.-W.

R.-J. You, and H.-W. Hwang, "Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation," J. Surv. Eng. 132, 64-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kany, C.

A. Altmaier, and C. Kany, "Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 56, 221-235 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kato, S.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Kim, E.-M.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Kim, K.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Krischke, M.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-C.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Lin, C.-W.

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-C.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, "Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery," River. Res. Appl. (in press) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, "Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206-3214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, "The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 72, 573-579 (2006).

Liu, J.-G.

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.-H.

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Massom, R.

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Melesse, A. M.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ord, J. K.

J. K. Ord, and A. Getis, "Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application," Geogr. Anal. 27, 286-306 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Getis, and J. K. Ord, "The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics," Geogr. Anal. 24, 189-206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oxfort, M.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ringrose, S.

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, "Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rocchini, D.

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, "Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction," Appl. Geography 25, 159-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, A.

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Scaioni, M.

M. Gianinetto, and M. Scaioni, "Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 74, 107-115 (2008).

Scambos, T.

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Schulten, D.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senay, G. B.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, C.-L.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, "Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery," River. Res. Appl. (in press) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, M.-L.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, "Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery," River. Res. Appl. (in press) (2008).

Shin, S.-W.

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

Stephens, P. S.

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teo, T. A.

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, "The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 72, 573-579 (2006).

Thenkabail, P. S.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toutin, T.

T. Toutin, "Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1893-1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tyc, G.

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weng, Q.

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A.-M.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-A.

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, "Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery," River. Res. Appl. (in press) (2008).

Wu, F.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-Y.

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

You, R.-J.

R.-J. You, and H.-W. Hwang, "Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation," J. Surv. Eng. 132, 64-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acta Astronautica (2)

A. da Silva Curiel, L. Boland, J. Cooksley, M. Bekhti, P. S. Stephens, Wei, and M. N. Sweeting, "First results from the disaster monitoring constellation (DMC)," Acta Astronautica 56, 261-271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Tyc, J. Tulip, D. Schulten, M. Krischke, and M. Oxfort, "The RapidEye mission design," Acta Astronautica 56, 213-219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antarctic Science (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "First space-borne high-spatial-resolution optical imagery of the Antarctic from Formosat-2," Antarctic Science 20, 605-606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Geography (1)

D. Rocchini and A. Di Rita, "Relief effects on aerial photos geometric correction," Appl. Geography 25, 159-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cold Regions Science and Technology (1)

C.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, S. Huang, S.-Y. Yen, F. Wu, A.-M. Wu, S. Kato, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Monitoring the dynamics of ice shelf margins in Polar Regions with high-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution space-borne optical imagery," Cold Regions Science and Technology 55, 14-22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1)

T. Scambos, H. A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, and A.-M. Wu, "Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (accepted) (2008).

Geogr. Anal. (2)

J. K. Ord, and A. Getis, "Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application," Geogr. Anal. 27, 286-306 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Getis, and J. K. Ord, "The Analysis of Spatial Association by Use of Distance Statistics," Geogr. Anal. 24, 189-206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C.-C. Liu, "Processing of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit imagery for site surveillance," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3206-3214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. (1)

W. Förstner, "A Feature Based Correspondence Algorithm For Image Matching," Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 26, 150-166 (1986).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (4)

C.-C. Liu, J.-G. Liu, C.-W. Lin, A.-M. Wu, S.-H. Liu, and C.-L. Shieh, "Image processing of FORMOSAT-2 data for monitoring South Asia tsunami," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 3093-3111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. I. El-Gamily, "Utilization of multi-dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 1773-1788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hamandawana, F. Eckardt, and S. Ringrose, "Proposed methodology for georeferencing and mosaicking Corona photographs," Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 5-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Toutin, "Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1893-1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (2)

A. Habib, K. Kim, S.-W. Shin, C. Kim, K.-I. Bang, E.-M. Kim, and D.-C. Lee, "Comprehensive Analysis of Sensor Modeling Alternatives for High-Resolution Imaging Satellites," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 73, 1241-1251 (2007).

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[CrossRef]

J. Surv. Eng. (1)

R.-J. You, and H.-W. Hwang, "Coordinate Transformation between Two Geodetic Datums of Taiwan by Least-Squares Collocation," J. Surv. Eng. 132, 64-70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. (2)

L. C. Chen, T. A. Teo, and J. L. Liu, "The Geometrical Comparisons of RSM and RFM for FORMOSAT-2 Satellite Images," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 72, 573-579 (2006).

M. Gianinetto, and M. Scaioni, "Automated Geometric Correction of High Resolution Pushbroom Satellite Data," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 74, 107-115 (2008).

River. Res. Appl. (1)

C.-C. Liu, C.-L. Shieh, C.-A. Wu, and M.-L. Shieh, "Change detection of gravel mining on riverbeds from the multi-temporal and high-spatial-resolution Formosat-2 imagery," River. Res. Appl. (in press) (2008).

Sensors (1)

A. M. Melesse, Q. Weng, P. S. Thenkabail, and G. B. Senay, "Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modelling," Sensors 7, 3209-3241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

C.-C. Liu, R. Huang, C.-L. Shieh, and J.-C. Lin, "Applications of FORMOSAT-2 imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide: the case of the catchment area of Tseng-Wen reservoir," in preparation (2008).

S. Baillarin, J. P. Gleyzes, C. Latry, A. Bouillon, E. Breton, L. Cunin, C. Vesco, and J. M. Delvit, "Validation of an automatic image orthorectification processing," in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS '04. Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1398-1401.

C. Liu, S.-C. Wu, F.-T. Hwang, A.-M. Wu, and H. Chen, "Radiometric and geometric calibration of ROCSAT-2 image," in The 25th Asian conference on remote sensing(Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2004), pp. 465-470.

T. M. Lillesand, R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman, Remote sensing and image interpretation (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

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J. G. Liu and J. Ma, "Imageodsey on MPI and GRID for co-seismic shift study using satellite optical imagery," in Prob. of the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting 2004 (Nottingham, UK, 2004), pp. 232-239.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geographic location of the study areas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Gao-Ping River.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Tseng-Wen Reservoir.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flowchart of the procedures that we employed to automatically extract the GCRs. The grey-filled box indicates the head of an iteration structure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Overlay of six selected GCRs on one tile image (1km × 1km)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Examples of coregistered scenes on Formosat-2 level-1A images (left column) and the orthorectified aerial photos (right column) using our module. (a) CSR, (b) GPR, and (c) TWR.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Overlay of the error vectors on the Formosat-2 Level-1A image of Chiu-Shui River. The red arrows indicate the error vectors, the lengths of which are elongated one hundred times for illustration purposes.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Overlay of the error vectors on the Formosat-2 Level-1A image of Gao-Ping River. The red arrows indicate the error vectors, the lengths of which are elongated one hundred times for illustration purposes.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Overlay of the error vectors on the Formosat-2 Level-1A image of Tseng-Wen Reservoir. The red arrows indicate the error vectors, the lengths of which are elongated one hundred times for illustration purposes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Dates and viewing angles of Formosat-2 images

Tables Icon

Table 2. Assessment of automatically-orthorectified Formosat-2 images

Equations (1)

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Gi(d)j=1nwij(d)xj/j=1nxj,

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