Abstract

The experimental characterization of an aperiodic reflecting multilayer (ML) structure designed to reflect and compress attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region is presented. The MLs are designed for the 75–105 eV spectral interval with suitable reflectance and phase behavior, in particular high total spectral reflectivity coupled with very wide bandwidth and spectral phase compensation. The experimental phase behavior of the multilayer has been obtained through electron photoemission signal using an innovative method that is presented and discussed in this paper. With this ML we have demonstrated pulse compression by reflection from 450 as to 130 as.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

A. Miyake, M. Amemiya, F. Masaki, and Y. Watanabe, "Phase measurement of reflection of EUV multilayer mirror using EUV standing waves," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2970-2974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, and N. Kabachnik, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, "IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp Phys 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, "Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amemiya, M.

A. Miyake, M. Amemiya, F. Masaki, and Y. Watanabe, "Phase measurement of reflection of EUV multilayer mirror using EUV standing waves," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2970-2974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, N. V. Edwardsb, T. E. Madeyc, "Properties of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers exposed to high energy photon irradiation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 63,73-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

Borgatti, F.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyko, O.

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carré, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clift, W. M.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delmotte, F.

DeLuisa, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, B.P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

Edwardsb, N. V.

S. Bajt, N. V. Edwardsb, T. E. Madeyc, "Properties of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers exposed to high energy photon irradiation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 63,73-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finetti, P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frassetto, F.

Gautier, J.

Gazzadi, G.C.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E.

Gustafsson, E.

Hachmann, W.

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, and N. Kabachnik, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

Hendel, S.

Kabachnik, N.

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, and N. Kabachnik, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kabachnik, N. M.

Kazamias, S.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klebanoff, L.E.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wonisch, U. Neuhusler, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Uphues, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, F. Krausz, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Design, fabrication, and analysis of chirped multilayer mirrors for reflection of extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulses," Appl. Opt. 45, 4147-4156 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

Laude, V.

Lin, J.

López-Martens, R.

Madeyc, T. E.

S. Bajt, N. V. Edwardsb, T. E. Madeyc, "Properties of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers exposed to high energy photon irradiation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 63,73-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahne, N.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinowski, M. E.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masaki, F.

A. Miyake, M. Amemiya, F. Masaki, and Y. Watanabe, "Phase measurement of reflection of EUV multilayer mirror using EUV standing waves," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2970-2974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maul, J.

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merke, M.

Miyake, A.

A. Miyake, M. Amemiya, F. Masaki, and Y. Watanabe, "Phase measurement of reflection of EUV multilayer mirror using EUV standing waves," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2970-2974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, G.

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morlens, A.-S.

Mrowka, S.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naletto, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neuhusler, U.

Nicolosi, P.

Pasquali, L.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M. G.

Pelizzo, M.G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M.-G.

Pervak, V.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravet, M.-F.

Remetter, T.

Rott, K.

Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmassi, F.

Schoenhense, G.

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, C.

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suman, M.

Taïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondello, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wonisch, U. Neuhusler, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Uphues, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, F. Krausz, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Design, fabrication, and analysis of chirped multilayer mirrors for reflection of extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulses," Appl. Opt. 45, 4147-4156 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

Valentin, C.

Varjú, K.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, "Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

A. Miyake, M. Amemiya, F. Masaki, and Y. Watanabe, "Phase measurement of reflection of EUV multilayer mirror using EUV standing waves," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2970-2974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weber, N.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, and N. Kabachnik, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

M. G. Pelizzo, M. Suman, G. Monaco, P. Nicolosi, and D. L. Windt, "High performance EUV ML structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters," Opt. Express 16, 15228-15237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Windt, "IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp Phys 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, "Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wonisch, A.

Yakovlev, V.

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

AIP Conference Proc. (1)

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B.P. Doyle, G.C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at Elettra," /AIP Conference Proc. 705, 450 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comp Phys (1)

D. L. Windt, "IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp Phys 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, "Multilayer facilities for EUV lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Miyake, M. Amemiya, F. Masaki, and Y. Watanabe, "Phase measurement of reflection of EUV multilayer mirror using EUV standing waves," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2970-2974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. E. Malinowski, C. Steinhaus, W. M. Clift, L.E. Klebanoff, S. Mrowka, and R. Soufli, "Controlling contamination in Mo/Si mutilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications," Proc. SPIE 4688, 442-453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond Synchronization of High-Harmonic Soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Bajt, N. V. Edwardsb, T. E. Madeyc, "Properties of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers exposed to high energy photon irradiation," Surf. Sci. Rep. 63,73-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, and N. Kabachnik, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Nannarone, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, A. De Luisa, B. Doyle, F. Borgatti, M. Pedio, L. Pasquali, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello "BEAR a bending magnet for emission absorption and reflectivity," Notiziario neutroni e luce di sincrotrone 12. 8-17 (2007).

http://www.elettra.trieste.it/experiments/beamlines/bear/

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C.-G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, "Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett.  94, 033001-1—4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

In abscissa the progressive index period number starting from the top of the structure. The gray dots are the a-Si layers thickness while the dark dots the Mo ones. For the sake of clarity, points are joined with straight segments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of the top layers structure in a ML: the first layer is a very thin non compact carbon film, the second one is a silicon oxide layer and underneath the a-Si and Mo alternated layers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In black, values of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index for the silicon material. The regions of application of method I and II respectively have been subdivided by grey continuous lines.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scheme of the concept express by the relationships (2) and (3) in the case of a rectangular reflectivity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical TEY signal; with red circle node and anti-node useful to determine the phase at correspondent energies.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Top figure: R(Ipol=1)/R(Ipol=0.8); bottom figure: Φs (continuos line) and Φp (star dots).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Theoretical and experimental reflectivity.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Cosine of the phase experimentally derived by the TEY signal (in gray). Curve corrected at anti-node in black.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Phase experimentally derived by the use of method I (black) and method II (grey). In continuous line the theoretical expected.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Gaussian pulse with a spectral band of 30 eV and a phase chirping of 0.3 fs2 as reflected by the theoretical ML and by the experimentally realized one.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

TEY(E)=C(E)·I0·(1+R(E)+2·R(E)·cosϕ(E))
Ei+1=Ei·cosθcosθ1.
{R(Ei+1,θ1)=R(Ei,θ)ϕ(Ei+1,θ1)=ϕ(Ei,θ).
TEY(θ1,Ei+1)TEY(θ,E)=C(Ei+1)I0(1+R(Ei+1,θ1)+2R(Ei+1,θ1)cosϕ(Ei+1,θ1))C(Ei)I0(1+R(Ei,θ)+2R(Ei,θ)cosϕ(Ei,θ)).
TEY(θ1,Ei+1)TEY(θ,E)=C(Ei+1)C(Ei)=kosti
C(Ei+1)=kosti·C(Ei)·cos(θ)cos(θ1).
R(ΔE)0
TES(E,θ1)=C(E)·I0·(R+2·R.cosϕ+1) C(E)·I0;
C(E)·I0=TES(E,θ1) . cosθ1cosθ
cosϕ(E,θ)=TEYC(E)·I01R2·R.

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