Abstract

We demonstrate waveguide integrated germanium detectors with capacitance as small as 2.4 fF and directly recorded impulse response as fast as 8.8 ps. Based on such detectors and cascaded silicon microring resonators we also demonstrate a highly scalable wavelength division demultiplexing system that can potentially provide tera-bit/s (Tbps) bandwidth over a small area.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15, 17106-17113 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, "Optical 4x4 hitless silicon router for optical Networks-on-Chip (NoC)," Opt. Express 16, 19395-19395 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. The drift velocity of electrons in germanium saturates at ~6E4 m/s with electrical field of 5E5 V/m, and holes reach 90% of its saturated velocity of the same value at electrical field of 1E6 V/m. See Levinshtein, M. & Simin, G.S. Getting to Know Semiconductors (World Scientific, 1992).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. W.C. Dash and R. Newman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in single crystal germanium and silicon at 77oK and 300oK," Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 14765-14771 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius," Opt. Express 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, "42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Express 17, 6252-6257 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S.W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-Integrated 40 GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMR4 (2009).

2009 (1)

2008 (5)

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius," Opt. Express 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008)
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, "Optical 4x4 hitless silicon router for optical Networks-on-Chip (NoC)," Opt. Express 16, 19395-19395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, "High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding," Opt. Express 16, 11513-11518 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

2006 (3)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Maters 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W.C. Dash and R. Newman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in single crystal germanium and silicon at 77oK and 300oK," Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, S.

S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bowers, J.

Cassan, E.

Cercus, J. L.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.

Dash, W.C.

W.C. Dash and R. Newman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in single crystal germanium and silicon at 77oK and 300oK," Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Fang, A.

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fattal, D.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Gosele, U.

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Maters 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008)
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15, 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

Hsiang, T. Y.

S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Maters 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khalil, W.

S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. H.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kocabas, S. E.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Latif, S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, B. G.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Ly-Gagnon, D.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mangeney, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

Melhaoui, L.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Nelson, N.A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Newman, R.

W.C. Dash and R. Newman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in single crystal germanium and silicon at 77oK and 300oK," Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okyay, A. K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

Raday, O.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rooks, M. J.

Rouviere, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rouvière, M.

Roux, X.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Sysak, M.

Tang, L.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Q.

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Maters 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, H.

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius," Opt. Express 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, T.

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Y. Chou, W. Khalil, T. Y. Hsiang, and S. Alexandrou, "Ultrafast nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on bulk and low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 819-821 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N.A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1699-1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics,". IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Maters. (1)

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Maters 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008)
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photonics 2, 226-229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Hartmann, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, "Optical 4x4 hitless silicon router for optical Networks-on-Chip (NoC)," Opt. Express 16, 19395-19395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15, 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. Morse1, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, "31GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate," Opt. Express 15, 13965-13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, "High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding," Opt. Express 16, 11513-11518 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 14765-14771 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius," Opt. Express 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, "42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Express 17, 6252-6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W.C. Dash and R. Newman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in single crystal germanium and silicon at 77oK and 300oK," Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

The drift velocity of electrons in germanium saturates at ~6E4 m/s with electrical field of 5E5 V/m, and holes reach 90% of its saturated velocity of the same value at electrical field of 1E6 V/m. See Levinshtein, M. & Simin, G.S. Getting to Know Semiconductors (World Scientific, 1992).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S.W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-Integrated 40 GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMR4 (2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Design of the waveguide integrated germanium MSM detector: (a) Cross-sectional schematic of the detector; (b) Optical energy distribution of its fundamental TE mode; (c) Strength (surface plot) and direction (cones) of the electrostatic field with 1V bias. The spatial overlap of optical mode in (b) and strong electrostatic field in (c) leads to very short transit time of the photo-generated carriers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Detector temporal response to a ~1 ps pulse under a 5V bias (b) Detector response to an intensity modulated non-return-to-zero (NRZ) optical signal at 40 Gbps under a 4V bias.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Integrated detection system composed of silicon microring resonator-based wavelength division demultiplexer and the germanium detectors. (a) Optical image of the device; (b) Zoom-in of one microring resonator; (c) DC spectra of the through port and four drop ports measured with integrated detectors; (d) Eye diagram of demultiplexed data (λ4) at 15 Gbps.

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