Abstract

The increasing need for high data return from near-Earth and deep-space missions is driving a demand for the establishment of Earth-space optical communication links. These links will require a nearly obstruction-free path to the communication platform, so there is a need to measure spatial and temporal statistics of clouds at potential ground-station sites. A technique is described that uses a ground-based thermal infrared imager to provide continuous day-night cloud detection and classification according to the cloud optical depth and potential communication channel attenuation. The benefit of retrieving cloud optical depth and corresponding attenuation is illustrated through measurements that identify cloudy times when optical communication may still be possible through thin clouds.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Piazzolla, S. Slobin, and P. E. Amini, “Cloud coverage diversity statistics for optical communication in the southwestern United States,” JPL Publication 00–13 (2000).
  2. M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Shaw, P. Nugent, N. J. Pust, B. Thurairajah, and K. Mizutani, “Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5807–5817 (2005), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5807 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw, “Cloud statistics measured with the infrared cloud imager (ICI),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(9), 2000–2007 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. W. Nugent, “Wide-Angle Infrared Cloud Imager for Cloud Cover Statistics,” Masters Thesis, Electrical Engineering (Montana State University, 2008), http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/2008/nugent/NugentP0508.pdf .
  8. J. H. Churnside and K. Shaik, “Atmospheric propagation issues relevant to optical communications,” NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL WPL-159 (Jan. 1989).
  9. G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120km).” Tech Report, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Environmental Research Papers (1986).
  12. J. A. Shaw and L. Fedor, “Improved calibration of infrared radiometers for cloud-temperature remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 32(5), 1002–1010 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Kassianov, C. N. Long, and M. Ovtchinnikov, “Cloud sky cover versus cloud fraction: whole-sky simulations and observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 86–98 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Inoue, “A cloud type classification with NOAA 7 split-window measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D4), 3991–4000 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. H. Reitan, “Surface dew point and water vapor aloft,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 2(6), 776–779 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Tomasi, “Determination of the total precipitable water vapor by varying the intercept in Reitan’s relationship,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(9), 1058–1069 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Sassen, and G. G. Mace, “Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds,” in Cirrus, D. K. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, and G. Stephens, eds (Oxford, New York, NY, 2002), pp 168–209.
  18. J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 40(10), 2285–2290 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, P. Nugent, N. J. Pust, B. Thurairajah, and K. Mizutani, “Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5807–5817 (2005), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5807 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw, “Cloud statistics measured with the infrared cloud imager (ICI),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(9), 2000–2007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Kassianov, C. N. Long, and M. Ovtchinnikov, “Cloud sky cover versus cloud fraction: whole-sky simulations and observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 86–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 40(10), 2285–2290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. A. Shaw and L. Fedor, “Improved calibration of infrared radiometers for cloud-temperature remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 32(5), 1002–1010 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

T. Inoue, “A cloud type classification with NOAA 7 split-window measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D4), 3991–4000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981

C. Tomasi, “Determination of the total precipitable water vapor by varying the intercept in Reitan’s relationship,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(9), 1058–1069 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1963

C. H. Reitan, “Surface dew point and water vapor aloft,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 2(6), 776–779 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, A.

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. T.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, A.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bird, A.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boain, R. J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boroson, D. M.

F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Demelenne, B.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dothe, H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durden, S. L.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedor, L.

J. A. Shaw and L. Fedor, “Improved calibration of infrared radiometers for cloud-temperature remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 32(5), 1002–1010 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Felde, G. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García-Talavera, M. R.

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. A.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giggenbach, D.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, M. L.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, A. J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, “A cloud type classification with NOAA 7 split-window measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D4), 3991–4000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jono, T.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kassianov, E.

E. Kassianov, C. N. Long, and M. Ovtchinnikov, “Cloud sky cover versus cloud fraction: whole-sky simulations and observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 86–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khatri, F.

F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knapek, M.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kunimori, H.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. N.

E. Kassianov, C. N. Long, and M. Ovtchinnikov, “Cloud sky cover versus cloud fraction: whole-sky simulations and observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 86–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mace, G. G.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mase, I.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mello, J.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. D.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitrescu, C.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, K.

Murphy, D. V.

F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, P.

O’Connor, E. J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 40(10), 2285–2290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ovtchinnikov, M.

E. Kassianov, C. N. Long, and M. Ovtchinnikov, “Cloud sky cover versus cloud fraction: whole-sky simulations and observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 86–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perlot, N.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pukall, B.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pust, N. J.

Ratkowski, A. J.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 40(10), 2285–2290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reitan, C. H.

C. H. Reitan, “Surface dew point and water vapor aloft,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 2(6), 776–779 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Richtsmeier, S. C.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, W. B.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, J.

F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

J. A. Shaw, P. Nugent, N. J. Pust, B. Thurairajah, and K. Mizutani, “Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5807–5817 (2005), http://oe.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5807 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw, “Cloud statistics measured with the infrared cloud imager (ICI),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(9), 2000–2007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw and L. Fedor, “Improved calibration of infrared radiometers for cloud-temperature remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 32(5), 1002–1010 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shiratama, K.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, S.

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thurairajah, B.

Tomasi, C.

C. Tomasi, “Determination of the total precipitable water vapor by varying the intercept in Reitan’s relationship,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(9), 1058–1069 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Toyoshima, M.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vane, D. G.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 40(10), 2285–2290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, S.

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamawaki, T.

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Met. Soc.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, and C. Mitrescu, and theCloudSat Science Team, “The CloudSat mission and the A-Train,”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 83, 1771–1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.

M. Toyoshima, S. Yamakawa, T. Yamawaki, K. Arai, M. R. García-Talavera, A. Alonso, S. Sodnik, and B. Demelenne, “Long-term statistics of laser beam propagation in an optical ground-to-geostationary satellite communications link,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 842–850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 40(10), 2285–2290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw, “Cloud statistics measured with the infrared cloud imager (ICI),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(9), 2000–2007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

E. Kassianov, C. N. Long, and M. Ovtchinnikov, “Cloud sky cover versus cloud fraction: whole-sky simulations and observations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 86–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Reitan, “Surface dew point and water vapor aloft,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 2(6), 776–779 (1963).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, “Determination of the total precipitable water vapor by varying the intercept in Reitan’s relationship,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(9), 1058–1069 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. Inoue, “A cloud type classification with NOAA 7 split-window measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D4), 3991–4000 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. A. Shaw and L. Fedor, “Improved calibration of infrared radiometers for cloud-temperature remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 32(5), 1002–1010 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, K. Shiratama, I. Mase, B. Demelenne, Z. Sodnik, A. Bird, M. Toyoshima, H. Kunimori, D. Giggenbach, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and K. Arai, “Overview of the inter-orbit and orbit-to-ground laser communication demonstration by OICETS,” Proc. SPIE 6457, 645702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Khatri, D. M. Boroson, D. V. Murphy, and J. Sharma, “Link analysis of Mars-Earth optical communications system,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 143–150 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3866, 2–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120km).” Tech Report, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Environmental Research Papers (1986).

P. W. Nugent, “Wide-Angle Infrared Cloud Imager for Cloud Cover Statistics,” Masters Thesis, Electrical Engineering (Montana State University, 2008), http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/2008/nugent/NugentP0508.pdf .

J. H. Churnside and K. Shaik, “Atmospheric propagation issues relevant to optical communications,” NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL WPL-159 (Jan. 1989).

K. Sassen, and G. G. Mace, “Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds,” in Cirrus, D. K. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, and G. Stephens, eds (Oxford, New York, NY, 2002), pp 168–209.

S. Piazzolla, S. Slobin, and P. E. Amini, “Cloud coverage diversity statistics for optical communication in the southwestern United States,” JPL Publication 00–13 (2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MODTRAN-simulated transmittance for a zenith path through the 76US atmosphere (ground level 1.524 km ASL) with water vapor profiles using default (black) and 1.5 × default (red) values.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MODTRAN down-welling atmospheric emission spectra for three cloud-free atmospheres: 76US with 1.5 × default water vapor (red, top), 76US default water vapor (blue, middle), and zero water vapor (dotted black, bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MODTRAN down-welling emission for the 76US atmosphere with and without clouds: cumulus at 1.6 km ASL (gold dashed, top), altostratus at 3.9 km ASL (red dotted, middle), OD 1 cirrus at 10 km ASL (black, 2nd from bottom), and clear sky (blue dashed, bottom).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An environmental enclosure houses the ICI2 system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ICI2 data measured at Bozeman, MT on 4 Oct. 2007 at 1329 MST (MST = UTC-7 hours). In this and subsequent 3-panel images, the left panel is the sky radiance image, the center panel is the residual radiance remaining after removal of clear-sky emission, and the right panel is the cloud product. In this figure the cloud product is cloud presence, with clouds shown in white and clear sky in black.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cloud optical depth data measured by a 62° fov ICI2 on 12 March 2008 at 13:41 MST for a sky that is partially filled with very thin clouds. An improved calibration provides increased sensitivity to thin clouds relative to previous figures, as indicated by the lower OD threshold in the color bar (note that a cloud with OD < 0.25 would cause 1.1 dB or less of attenuation).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cloud OD data measured by the 110° fov ICI2 system for a fully overcast sky. There is a small portion of thinner clouds near the left center of the image with OD < 3 where optical communication may be possible for a short time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cloud OD data from the 110° fov system (compare with Fig. 6) on 4 Oct. 2007 at 1329 MST. The center portion of this image shows good agreement with the 62° image in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cloud OD data from the 62° system on 4 Oct. 2007 at 1329 MST.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cloud optical depth data measured by the 110° fov ICI2 system for a mostly clear sky with thin cirrus clouds. The bright spot near the upper-right corner of the image is the Moon (algorithms are being developed to locate these pixels and prevent data errors from the sun or moon).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Full-image cloud amount broken up into three categories: total cloudiness (dotted black line), thin clouds with OD < 1.6 or attenuation < 7 dB (dashed blue), and thick clouds with OD > 1.6 or attenuation > 7 dB (red line). Before approximately 13:00 MST communication may be possible, so simply detecting cloud presence, which leads to determination of a nearly constant 100% cloud amount, is insufficient to characterize the communication channel.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Cloud optical depth classification thresholds used in this paper. (For pre-08 data the “Very Thin” threshold fell into the undetectable range).

Metrics