Abstract

A new scheme of five-level hyper V-type atomic system is proposed with the aim of generating slow temporal vector optical solitons. Two transitions in the five-level atomic medium independently interact with the two orthogonally polarized components of a low intensity linear-polarized pulsed probe field, while two other transitions are driven by control laser fields. We demonstrate that various distortion-free slow temporal vector optical solitons, such as bright-bright, bright-dark, dark-bright and dark-dark vector solitons, can be evolved from the probe field. Besides, we also show that the modified Hubbard model that includes the Manakov system may be realized by adjusting the corresponding self- (cross-) phase modulation and dispersion effects of this system.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (9)

E. Yomba, "Generalized hyperbolic functions to find soliton-like solutions for a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Lett. A 372, 1612-1618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Lu, N. Liu, M. Wang, and T.-K. Liu, "Microwave solitons in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Lett. A 373, 413-417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, and R. Carretero-Gonz’alez, "Bright-dark soliton complexes in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-Y. Lü, J.-B. Liu, C.-L. Ding, and J.-H. Li, "Dispersive atom-field interaction scheme for three-dimensional entanglement between two spatially separated atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 032305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang and G. Huang, "Weak-light ultraslow vector solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L.-G. Si, J.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Lü, and X. Yang, "Ultraslow temporal vector optical solitons in a cold five-state atomic medium under Raman excitation," J. Phys. B 41, 215504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-X. Yang and R.-K. Lee, "Slow optical solitons via intersubband transitions in a semiconductor quantum well," Europhys. Lett. 83, 14002 (2008)
[CrossRef]

W.-X. Yang, J.-M. Hou, and R.-K. Lee, "Ultraslow bright and dark solitons in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033838 (2008)
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, "Observation of High-Order Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in a Fiber Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

D. Rand, I. Glesk, C.-S. Brés, D. A. Nolan, X. Chen, J. Koh, J. W. Fleischer, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, "Observation of Temporal Vector Soliton Propagation and Collision in Birefringent Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Four-wave mixing in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 76, 054425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Adamashvili, C. Weber, and A. Knorr, "Optical nonlinear waves in semiconductor quantum dots: Solitons and breathers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 063808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie, W. Li, J. Li, W.-X. Yang, A. Yuan, and X. Yang, "Transverse acoustic wave in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 75, 184423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, "Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

X. Yang and Y. Wu, "Ultra-slow Bright and Dark Optical Solitons in Cold Media," Commun. Theor. Phys. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanna, M. Lakshmanan, P. Tchofo Dinda, and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton collisions with shape change by intensity redistribution in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Rev. E 73, 026604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie,W.-B. Li, and X. Yang, "Bright, dark, bistable bright, and vortex spatial-optical solitons in a cold threestate medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1609-1614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and A. I. Maimistov, "Localized Polaritons and Second-Harmonic Generation in a Resonant Medium with Quadratic Nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Li, X.-Y. Lü, J.-M. Luo, and Q.-J. Huang, "Optical bistability and multistability via atomic coherence in an N-type atomic medium," Phys. Rev. A 74, 035801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Huang, K. Jiang, M. G. Payne, and L. Deng, "Formation and propagation of coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a cold three-state double-Λ system," Phys. Rev. E 73, 056606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (7)

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Achieving multifrequency mode entanglement with ultraslow multiwave mixing," Opt. Lett. 29, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Ultraslow bright and dark optical solitons in a cold three-state medium," Opt. Lett. 29, 2064-2066 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, M. G. Payne, E. W. Hagley, and L. Deng, "Ultraviolet single-photons on demand and entanglement of photons with a large frequency difference," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in double-⊄ system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 70, 053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Liu, H. Jing, and M.-L. Ge, "Solitons formed by dark-state polaritons in an electromagnetic induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 70, 055802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, D. M. Bird, and F. Benabid, "Effective Kerr Nonlinearity and Two-Color Solitons in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers Filled with a Raman Active Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143907 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, M. Kozuma, and M. G. Payne, "Optical-wave group-velocity reduction without electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 65, 051805(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. Kozuma, E.W. Hagley, and M. G. Payne, "Opening Optical Four-Wave Mixing Channels with Giant Enhancement Using Ultraslow Pump Waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 143902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wu, J. Liu, and Q. Niu, "Controlled Generation of Dark Solitons with Phase Imprinting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 034101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and R.  Côté, "Bistability and quantum fluctuations in coherent photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

Q. Park and H. J. Shin, "Systematic construction of multicomponent optical solitons," Phys. Rev. E 61, 3093-3106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamǒglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, "Nonlinear Optics at Low Light Levels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611-4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, "Multisoliton perturbation theory for the Manakov equations and its applications to nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. E 59, 2393-2405 2393 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290-3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, "Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699-3702 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs," Opt. Lett. 21, 1436-1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamǒglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

Adamashvili, G. T.

G. T. Adamashvili, C. Weber, and A. Knorr, "Optical nonlinear waves in semiconductor quantum dots: Solitons and breathers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 063808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Afanasyev, V. V.

Aitchison, J. S.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, "Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699-3702 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

T. Kanna, M. Lakshmanan, P. Tchofo Dinda, and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton collisions with shape change by intensity redistribution in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Rev. E 73, 026604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, "Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699-3702 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N. N.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anastassiou, C.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290-3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, D. M. Bird, and F. Benabid, "Effective Kerr Nonlinearity and Two-Color Solitons in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers Filled with a Raman Active Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143907 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, D. M. Bird, and F. Benabid, "Effective Kerr Nonlinearity and Two-Color Solitons in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers Filled with a Raman Active Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143907 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, D. M.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, D. M. Bird, and F. Benabid, "Effective Kerr Nonlinearity and Two-Color Solitons in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers Filled with a Raman Active Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143907 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brés, C.-S.

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T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, "Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
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M. D. Lukin and A. Imamǒglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000)
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J.-H. Li, X.-Y. Lü, J.-M. Luo, and Q.-J. Huang, "Optical bistability and multistability via atomic coherence in an N-type atomic medium," Phys. Rev. A 74, 035801 (2006).
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H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, and R. Carretero-Gonz’alez, "Bright-dark soliton complexes in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033612 (2008).
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Nistazakis, H. E.

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B. Wu, J. Liu, and Q. Niu, "Controlled Generation of Dark Solitons with Phase Imprinting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 034101 (2002).
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D. Rand, I. Glesk, C.-S. Brés, D. A. Nolan, X. Chen, J. Koh, J. W. Fleischer, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, "Observation of Temporal Vector Soliton Propagation and Collision in Birefringent Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053902 (2007).
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G. Huang, K. Jiang, M. G. Payne, and L. Deng, "Formation and propagation of coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a cold three-state double-Λ system," Phys. Rev. E 73, 056606 (2006).
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Y. Wu, M. G. Payne, E. W. Hagley, and L. Deng, "Ultraviolet single-photons on demand and entanglement of photons with a large frequency difference," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063812 (2004).
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L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, M. Kozuma, and M. G. Payne, "Optical-wave group-velocity reduction without electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 65, 051805(R) (2002).
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L. Deng, M. Kozuma, E.W. Hagley, and M. G. Payne, "Opening Optical Four-Wave Mixing Channels with Giant Enhancement Using Ultraslow Pump Waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 143902 (2002).
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D. Rand, I. Glesk, C.-S. Brés, D. A. Nolan, X. Chen, J. Koh, J. W. Fleischer, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, "Observation of Temporal Vector Soliton Propagation and Collision in Birefringent Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053902 (2007).
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D. Rand, I. Glesk, C.-S. Brés, D. A. Nolan, X. Chen, J. Koh, J. W. Fleischer, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, "Observation of Temporal Vector Soliton Propagation and Collision in Birefringent Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053902 (2007).
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M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
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M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
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Scully, M. O.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, "Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699-3702 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, "Optical solitary waves induced by cross-phase modulation," Opt. Lett. 13, 871-873 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiglitz, K.

D. Rand, I. Glesk, C.-S. Brés, D. A. Nolan, X. Chen, J. Koh, J. W. Fleischer, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, "Observation of Temporal Vector Soliton Propagation and Collision in Birefringent Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, and K. Steiglitz, "Information transfer via cascaded collisions of vector solitons," Opt. Lett. 26, 1498-1500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, "Observation of High-Order Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in a Fiber Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchofo Dinda, P.

T. Kanna, M. Lakshmanan, P. Tchofo Dinda, and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton collisions with shape change by intensity redistribution in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Rev. E 73, 026604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Truesdale, C. M.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vijayajayanthi, M.

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, "Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

Wang, M.

J.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Lu, N. Liu, M. Wang, and T.-K. Liu, "Microwave solitons in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Lett. A 373, 413-417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, C.

G. T. Adamashvili, C. Weber, and A. Knorr, "Optical nonlinear waves in semiconductor quantum dots: Solitons and breathers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 063808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, L.

Wong, W. S.

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Wu, B.

B. Wu, J. Liu, and Q. Niu, "Controlled Generation of Dark Solitons with Phase Imprinting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 034101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, "Observation of High-Order Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in a Fiber Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Four-wave mixing in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 76, 054425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and Y. Wu, "Ultra-slow Bright and Dark Optical Solitons in Cold Media," Commun. Theor. Phys. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in V-, Λ-, and cascade-type schemes beyond steady-state analysis," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, "Two-color ultraslow optical solitons via four-wave mixing in cold-atom media," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, M. G. Payne, E. W. Hagley, and L. Deng, "Ultraviolet single-photons on demand and entanglement of photons with a large frequency difference," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in double-⊄ system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 70, 053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Achieving multifrequency mode entanglement with ultraslow multiwave mixing," Opt. Lett. 29, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Ultraslow bright and dark optical solitons in a cold three-state medium," Opt. Lett. 29, 2064-2066 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, L. Wen, and Y. Zhu, "Efficient hyper-Raman scattering in resonant coherent media," Opt. Lett. 28, 631-633 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and R.  Côté, "Bistability and quantum fluctuations in coherent photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.-T.

X.-T. Xie, W. Li, J. Li, W.-X. Yang, A. Yuan, and X. Yang, "Transverse acoustic wave in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 75, 184423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie,W.-B. Li, and X. Yang, "Bright, dark, bistable bright, and vortex spatial-optical solitons in a cold threestate medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1609-1614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, "Multisoliton perturbation theory for the Manakov equations and its applications to nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. E 59, 2393-2405 2393 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.-X.

L.-G. Si, W.-X. Yang, and X. Yang, "Ultraslow temporal vector optical solitons in a cold four-level tripod atomic system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 478-486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-X. Yang, J.-M. Hou, and R.-K. Lee, "Ultraslow bright and dark solitons in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033838 (2008)
[CrossRef]

W.-X. Yang and R.-K. Lee, "Slow optical solitons via intersubband transitions in a semiconductor quantum well," Europhys. Lett. 83, 14002 (2008)
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie, W. Li, J. Li, W.-X. Yang, A. Yuan, and X. Yang, "Transverse acoustic wave in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 75, 184423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

L.-G. Si, W.-X. Yang, and X. Yang, "Ultraslow temporal vector optical solitons in a cold four-level tripod atomic system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 478-486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L.-G. Si, J.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Lü, and X. Yang, "Ultraslow temporal vector optical solitons in a cold five-state atomic medium under Raman excitation," J. Phys. B 41, 215504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie, W. Li, J. Li, W.-X. Yang, A. Yuan, and X. Yang, "Transverse acoustic wave in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 75, 184423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Four-wave mixing in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 76, 054425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie,W.-B. Li, and X. Yang, "Bright, dark, bistable bright, and vortex spatial-optical solitons in a cold threestate medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1609-1614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and Y. Wu, "Ultra-slow Bright and Dark Optical Solitons in Cold Media," Commun. Theor. Phys. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in V-, Λ-, and cascade-type schemes beyond steady-state analysis," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in double-⊄ system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 70, 053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yomba, E.

E. Yomba, "Generalized hyperbolic functions to find soliton-like solutions for a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Lett. A 372, 1612-1618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, A.

X.-T. Xie, W. Li, J. Li, W.-X. Yang, A. Yuan, and X. Yang, "Transverse acoustic wave in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 75, 184423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, A. V.

D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and A. I. Maimistov, "Localized Polaritons and Second-Harmonic Generation in a Resonant Medium with Quadratic Nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, "Observation of High-Order Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in a Fiber Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, "Observation of High-Order Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in a Fiber Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Zibrov, A. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Theor. Phys. (1)

X. Yang and Y. Wu, "Ultra-slow Bright and Dark Optical Solitons in Cold Media," Commun. Theor. Phys. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

W.-X. Yang and R.-K. Lee, "Slow optical solitons via intersubband transitions in a semiconductor quantum well," Europhys. Lett. 83, 14002 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

L.-G. Si, J.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Lü, and X. Yang, "Ultraslow temporal vector optical solitons in a cold five-state atomic medium under Raman excitation," J. Phys. B 41, 215504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, "Optical solitary waves induced by cross-phase modulation," Opt. Lett. 13, 871-873 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Afanasyev, Y. S. Kivshar, V. V. Konotop, and V. N. Serkin, "Dynamics of coupled dark and bright optical solitons," Opt. Lett. 14, 805-807 (1989).
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Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs," Opt. Lett. 21, 1436-1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamǒglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, M. Segev, and K. Steiglitz, "Information transfer via cascaded collisions of vector solitons," Opt. Lett. 26, 1498-1500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, L. Wen, and Y. Zhu, "Efficient hyper-Raman scattering in resonant coherent media," Opt. Lett. 28, 631-633 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Achieving multifrequency mode entanglement with ultraslow multiwave mixing," Opt. Lett. 29, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Ultraslow bright and dark optical solitons in a cold three-state medium," Opt. Lett. 29, 2064-2066 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Korolev, V. N. Nazarov, D. A. Nolan, and C. M. Truesdale, "Experimental observation of orthogonally polarized time-delayed optical soliton trapping in birefringent fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 132-134 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Delqué, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, C. Cambournac, P. Kockaert, and M. Haelterman, "Experimental observation of the elliptically polarized fundamental vector soliton of isotropic Kerr media," Opt. Lett. 30, 3383-3385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

E. Yomba, "Generalized hyperbolic functions to find soliton-like solutions for a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Lett. A 372, 1612-1618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Lu, N. Liu, M. Wang, and T.-K. Liu, "Microwave solitons in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Lett. A 373, 413-417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (14)

X.-J. Liu, H. Jing, and M.-L. Ge, "Solitons formed by dark-state polaritons in an electromagnetic induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 70, 055802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Nistazakis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, P. G. Kevrekidis, B. A. Malomed, and R. Carretero-Gonz’alez, "Bright-dark soliton complexes in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, "Two-color ultraslow optical solitons via four-wave mixing in cold-atom media," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in V-, Λ-, and cascade-type schemes beyond steady-state analysis," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W.-X. Yang, J.-M. Hou, and R.-K. Lee, "Ultraslow bright and dark solitons in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033838 (2008)
[CrossRef]

G. T. Adamashvili, C. Weber, and A. Knorr, "Optical nonlinear waves in semiconductor quantum dots: Solitons and breathers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 063808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and R.  Côté, "Bistability and quantum fluctuations in coherent photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Li, X.-Y. Lü, J.-M. Luo, and Q.-J. Huang, "Optical bistability and multistability via atomic coherence in an N-type atomic medium," Phys. Rev. A 74, 035801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, M. G. Payne, E. W. Hagley, and L. Deng, "Ultraviolet single-photons on demand and entanglement of photons with a large frequency difference," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X.-Y. Lü, J.-B. Liu, C.-L. Ding, and J.-H. Li, "Dispersive atom-field interaction scheme for three-dimensional entanglement between two spatially separated atoms," Phys. Rev. A 78, 032305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in double-⊄ system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 70, 053818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, M. Kozuma, and M. G. Payne, "Optical-wave group-velocity reduction without electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 65, 051805(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hang and G. Huang, "Weak-light ultraslow vector solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanna, M. Vijayajayanthi, and M. Lakshmanan, "Periodic energy switching of bright solitons in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with linear self-coupling and cross-coupling terms," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. Wu and X. Yang, "Four-wave mixing in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 76, 054425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Xie, W. Li, J. Li, W.-X. Yang, A. Yuan, and X. Yang, "Transverse acoustic wave in molecular magnets via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. B 75, 184423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (4)

J. Yang, "Multisoliton perturbation theory for the Manakov equations and its applications to nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. E 59, 2393-2405 2393 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Park and H. J. Shin, "Systematic construction of multicomponent optical solitons," Phys. Rev. E 61, 3093-3106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Huang, K. Jiang, M. G. Payne, and L. Deng, "Formation and propagation of coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a cold three-state double-Λ system," Phys. Rev. E 73, 056606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanna, M. Lakshmanan, P. Tchofo Dinda, and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton collisions with shape change by intensity redistribution in mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations," Phys. Rev. E 73, 026604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, "Nonlinear Optics at Low Light Levels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611-4614 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, M. Kozuma, E.W. Hagley, and M. G. Payne, "Opening Optical Four-Wave Mixing Channels with Giant Enhancement Using Ultraslow Pump Waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 143902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and L. Deng, "Ultraslow optical solitons in a cold four-state medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and A. I. Maimistov, "Localized Polaritons and Second-Harmonic Generation in a Resonant Medium with Quadratic Nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wu, J. Liu, and Q. Niu, "Controlled Generation of Dark Solitons with Phase Imprinting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 034101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290-3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Rand, I. Glesk, C.-S. Brés, D. A. Nolan, X. Chen, J. Koh, J. W. Fleischer, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, "Observation of Temporal Vector Soliton Propagation and Collision in Birefringent Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, D. M. Bird, and F. Benabid, "Effective Kerr Nonlinearity and Two-Color Solitons in Photonic Band-Gap Fibers Filled with a Raman Active Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143907 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, "Observation of High-Order Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in a Fiber Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, "Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699-3702 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamǒglu, "Nonlinear optics and quantum entanglement of ultraslow single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1419-1422 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow Group Velocity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in a Coherently Driven Hot Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229-5232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 2001).

B. A. Malomed, Soliton management in periodic systems (Springer, 2006).

L. Deng, M. G. Payne, G. Huang, and E. W. Hagley, "Formation and propagation of matched and coupled ultraslow optical soliton pairs in a four-level double-Λ system," Phys. Rev. E 72, 055601(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Five-level atomic system in a hyper V-type configuration. The strong cw control field with frequency ω c1 (ω c2) and Rabi frequency Ω c1 c2) couples to the ∣1〉 ↔ ∣3〉 (∣2〉 ↔ ∣4〉) transition, and the σ - σ + component of the weak probe field with frequency ωp and Rabi frequency Ω p couples to the ∣0〉 ↔ ∣1〉 (∣0〉 ↔ ∣2)) transition. Δ s s - Δ) and Δ t1 t2) are corresponding one- and two-photon detunings with Δ = 2μ ��g ��/h̄ being the Zeeman shift of levels ∣1〉 and 2〉. (b) Possible arrangement of experimental apparatus. �� is an applied magnetic field. Ω c1 and ω c2 represent two control fields. σ - and σ + denote two orthogonally polarized components of a probe field.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption coefficients α 1 and α 2 versus dimensionless Rabi frequency ∣Ω c1∣/γ 1 and ∣Ω c2∣/γ 2 for several different values of the two-photon detunings Δ t1 and Δ t2. The other parameters are γ 1γ 2 ≃ 5.6 MHz, γ 3γ 4 ≃ 0.76 MHz, κ 10κ 20 ≃ 6 γ 1/cm, Δ s ~ ≃ 25 γ 1, and Δ ~ 0.5 γ 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (c) are, respectively, the σ - and σ + polarization components of the probe field, obtained numerically from Eqs. (31) and (32), versus dimensionless time τ/τ 0 and distance ξ/Ld with τ 0 = 1.0 × 10-8 s and Ld ≃ 12.59 cm for bright-bright vector optical solitons formation. (b) shows the Manakov bright-bright vector solitons given in Eqs. (43) and (44) for the same parameters. Other parameters are explained in the main text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The wave shape of the σ - polarization component for two-soliton collisions under different initial conditions: (a), u 1(z = 0) = u 2(z = 0) = sech(σ + 2.0)e - + sech(σ-2.0)e ; (b), u 1(z = 0) = u 2(z = 0) = sech(σ + 2.0)e - + sech(σ - 2.0)ei (σ+π). All the parameters are present in the main text.

Equations (45)

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Ĥinth̄=Δs 11(ΔsΔ)22Δt133Δt24 4
(Ωp1eikp·r10+Ωp2eikp·r20+Ωc1eikc1·r31+Ωc2eikc2·r42+H.c.) ,
B1t=i(Δs+iγ1) B1+iΩc1*B3+iΩp1B0 .
B2t=i(ΔsΔ+iγ2) B2+iΩc2*B4+iΩp2B0 ,
B3t=i(Δt1+iγ3)B3+iΩc1B1,
B4t=i(Δt2+iγ4)B4+iΩc2B2,
B02+B12+B22+B32+B42=1,
Ωp1z+1cΩp1t=iκ10B1B0* ,
Ωp2z+1cΩp2t=iκ20B2B0* ,
(ω+Δs+iγ1)β1(1)+Ωc1*β3(1)=Λp1,
(ω+ΔsΔ+iγ2)β2(1)+Ωc2* β4(1) = Λp2,
(ω+Δt1+iγ3)β3(1)+Ωc1β1(1)=0,
(ω+Δt2+iγ4)β4(1)+Ωc2β2(1)=0,
Λp1ziωcΛp1=iκ10β1(1),
Λp2ziωcΛp2=iκ20β2(1),
Λp1(z,ω)=Λp1 (0,ω) exp [izK1(ω)] ,
Λp2(z,ω)=Λp2 (0,ω) exp [izK2(ω)] ,
K1=ωc+κ10(ω+Δt1+iγ3)Ωc12(ω+Δs+iγ1)(ω+Δt1+iγ3) =K10+K11ω+K12ω2+,
K2=ωc+κ20(ω+Δt2+iγ4)Ωc22(ω+ΔsΔ+iγ2)(ω+Δt2+iγ4) =K20+K21ω+K22ω2+,
i(z+1Vg1t)Ω1+K122t2Ω1=𝒩1,
i(z+1Vg2t)Ω2+K222t2Ω2=𝒩2,
B1(1)=Δt1+iγ3Ωc12(Δs+iγ1)(Δt1+iγ3)Ωp1,
B2(1)=Δt2+iγ4Ωc22(ΔsΔ+iγ2)(Δt2+iγ4)Ωp2,
B3(1)=Ωc1Ωc12(Δs+iγ1)(Δt1+iγ3)Ωp1,
B4(1)=Ωc2Ωc22(ΔsΔ+iγ2)(Δt2+iγ4)Ωp2.
i(ξ+δτ)Ω1K122τ2Ω1(W11eα1ξΩ12+W12eα2ξΩ22)Ω1=0,
i(ξδτ)Ω2K222τ2Ω2(W22eα2ξΩ22+W21eα1ξΩ12)Ω2=0,
W11=κ10(Δt1+iγ3)(Ωc12+Δt12+γ32)D1D12],
W12=κ10(Δt1+iγ3)(Ωc22+Δt22+γ42)D1D22],
W22=κ20(Δt2+iγ4)(Ωc22+Δt22+γ42)D2D22],
W21=κ20(Δt2+iγ4)(Ωc12+Δt12+γ32)D2D12],
iu1s+iQδ u1σQ12u1σ2(Q11u12+Q12u22) u1 =0,
iu2siQδ u2σQ22u2σ2(Q22u22+Q21u12) u2 =0,
u1=C1sech(σ)exp[i(F11σ+F12s)] ,
u2=C2sech(σ)exp[i(F21σ+F22s)] ,
u1=C1sech(σ)exp[i(F11σ+F12s)] ,
u2=C2tanh(σ)exp[i(F21σ+F22s)] ,
u1=C1tanh(σ)exp[i(F11σ+F12s)] ,
u2=C2sech(σ)exp[i(F21σ+F22s)] ,
u1=C1tanh(σ)exp[i(F11σ+F12s)] ,
u2=C2tanh(σ)exp[i(F21σ+F22s)] ,
isu1+2σ2u1+(u12+u22)u1=0,
isu2+2σ2u2+(u22+u12)u2=0,
u1=2 cos(θ) sech(σ)eis,
u2=2 sin(θ) sech(σ)eis,

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