Abstract

We present a novel concept of a compact, ultra fast electro-optic modulator, based on photonic crystal resonator structures that can be realized in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs of silicon as core material employing a nonlinear optical polymer as infiltration and cladding material. The novel concept is to combine a photonic crystal heterostructure cavity with a slotted defect waveguide. The photonic crystal lattice can be used as a distributed electrode for the application of a modulation signal. An electrical contact is hence provided while the optical wave is kept isolated from the lossy metal electrodes. Thereby, well known disadvantages of segmented electrode designs such as excessive scattering are avoided. The optical field enhancement in the slotted region increases the nonlinear interaction with an external electric field resulting in an envisaged switching voltage of approximately 1 V at modulation speeds up to 100 GHz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "On the Design of a Photonic Network-on-Chip," First International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (IEEE, 2007) 53-64.
  2. T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Park, H. S. Lee, H. J. Kim, K. M. Moon, S. G. Lee, B. H. O, S. G. Park, and E. H. Lee, "Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional coupling," Opt. Express 12, 3599-3604 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-15-3599.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator's on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520-1526 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 16, 4177-4191 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4177.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5216.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 83501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Avaible atwww.cst.com.
  24. T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Design of a high-Q air-slot cavity based on a width-modulated line-defect in a photonic crystal slab," Opt. Express 16, 13809-13817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13809.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, G. H. Kim, O. K. Kwon, K. J. Kim, and G. Kim, "Controlling temperature dependence of silicon waveguide using slot structure," Opt. Express 16, 1645-1652 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, "Coupling of small, low-loss hexapole mode with photonic crystal slab waveguide mode," Opt. Express 12, 6624-6631 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-26-6624.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. K. K. McLauchlan and S. T. Dunham, "Analysis of a compact modulator incorporating a hybrid silicon/electro-optic polymer waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1455-1460 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Widman, H. Mader, and H. Friedrich, Technology of integrated circuits (Springer, 2000).
  30. R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, "High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 318-328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 83501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, G. H. Kim, O. K. Kwon, K. J. Kim, and G. Kim, "Controlling temperature dependence of silicon waveguide using slot structure," Opt. Express 16, 1645-1652 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Design of a high-Q air-slot cavity based on a width-modulated line-defect in a photonic crystal slab," Opt. Express 16, 13809-13817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13809.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator's on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520-1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. K. McLauchlan and S. T. Dunham, "Analysis of a compact modulator incorporating a hybrid silicon/electro-optic polymer waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1455-1460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5216.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2002 (2)

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1989 (1)

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5216.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Benedict, J. B.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorklund, G. C.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blum, R.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, "High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 318-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottger, G.

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, R.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5216.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di Falco, A.

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 83501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, S. T.

K. K. McLauchlan and S. T. Dunham, "Analysis of a compact modulator incorporating a hybrid silicon/electro-optic polymer waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1455-1460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, "High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 318-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, H.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, T.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, S.

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, W. N.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, U.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, U.

M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, S. H.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. X. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5216.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ka, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. J.

Kim, G.

Kim, G. H.

Kim, H. J.

Kim, K. J.

Kim, T. D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. E.

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 83501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucharski, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, T.

Kuligk, A.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, J.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Kwon, O. K.

Lalanne, P.

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawson, R.

Lee, H. S.

Lee, J. M.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. G.

Lee, Y. H.

Liao, Y.

Liguda, C.

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator's on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520-1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Looser, H.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, J. D.

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marlow, F.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLauchlan, K. K.

K. K. McLauchlan and S. T. Dunham, "Analysis of a compact modulator incorporating a hybrid silicon/electro-optic polymer waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1455-1460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, H. G.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, K. M.

Morgenroth, W.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narasimba, A.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Faolain, L.

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 83501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overney, R. M.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. H.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I.

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Y.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, H.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sablotny, J.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, M.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sen, A.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z. W.

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

Song, B. S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sprave, M.

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

Swalen, J. D.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

Torii, Y.

Tucker, N.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twieg, R.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volksen, W.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. X.

White, T. P.

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wülbern, J. H.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Yamamoto, T.

Yoon, D. Y.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, Y.

Zhou, X. H.

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, "Omnidirectional photonic band gap in polymer photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsner, and H. G. Meyer, "Polymer photonic crystal slab waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434-2436 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bottger, C. Liguda, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, "Improved transmission characteristics of moderate refractive index contrast photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2517-2519 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Huebner, and R. Boucher, "Electro-optically tunable photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 83501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, and A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, "Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1396-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator's on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520-1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. K. McLauchlan and S. T. Dunham, "Analysis of a compact modulator incorporating a hybrid silicon/electro-optic polymer waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1455-1460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimba, "A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-mu m CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, "Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 488-489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Bjorklund, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, "Corona poling and real-time second-harmonic generation study of a novel covalently functionalized amorphous nonlinear optical polymer," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559-2567 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Letters (1)

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Letters 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Organic Lett. (1)

J. D. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. W. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, "Facile synthesis of highly efficient phenyltetraene-based nonlinear optical chromophores for electrooptics," Organic Lett. 8, 1387-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Physical Review B (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Physical Review B 62, 8212-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, "Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 16, 4177-4191 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4177.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaible atwww.cst.com.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "On the Design of a Photonic Network-on-Chip," First International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (IEEE, 2007) 53-64.

D. Widman, H. Mader, and H. Friedrich, Technology of integrated circuits (Springer, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the proposed slotted PhC waveguide heterostructure modulator. The resonator is defined by the cavity region (PhC1) and the reflector (PhC2), in plane light confined is achieved by the mode gap effect. To facilitate coupling to the cavity an injector section (PhC3) between PhC2 and the slotted ridge waveguide is designed. The stripe electrodes are placed alongside the PhC waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Defect mode of the slotted PhC waveguide, the inset shows the field distribution of the defect mode in the x-z-plane. (b) Intrinsic quality factor and penetration depth in the reflector section of the PhC heterostructure resonator as a function of cavity lattice constant. (c) shows the field distribution of the resonant mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) show the real space field distribution of the Ex component at x = 0 in logarithmic scale. Enhanced vertical scattering at larger cavity lattice constant a1 can be observed. (c) and (d) show the k-space field distribution of the same field vector component at y = 0 in false color representation of identical scale. For wave vectors inside the white circle the total internal reflection condition is violated.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) 3D band diagram of the slotted PhC waveguide defect mode. By choosing a larger lattice constant the light at the resonance frequency (ωres) is first coupled to a fast light mode of the transition section PhC 3 and then excites into the slow light mode of the cavity. The fast light region of the transition section is above the light cone, however, this section has a very short length of just 4a3. (b) Maximum transmission vs. Q factor cavities with and without an injector section, reflector length is varied between 8 and 14 lattice constants.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated resonance spectra of heterostructure cavity in a silicon/polymer hybrid PhC slab at electro-optically shifted refractive indices of the polymer slot material. The voltage required to shift the spectrum by the spectral width of the resonance is VFWHM = 0.8 V when using an electro-optically active polymer with r33 = 150 pm/V. The slight asymmetric shape of the spectrum is a consequence of the close spectral proximity of the mode gap edge at higher frequencies.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Sketch of the electrically relevant geometry of the device.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1Qtotal=1Qvertical+1Qhorizontal,
Tmax=(QtotalQhorizontal)2=(1QtotalQvertical)2,

Metrics