Abstract

We introduce the use of dual-quadrature spectral interferometry for amplitude and phase characterization of 100% duty factor optical arbitrary waveforms generated via spectral line-by-line pulse shaping. We demonstrate this technique for measurement of optical arbitrary waveforms composed of ~30 spectral lines from a 10 GHz frequency comb with 1.4 μs data acquisition time at an average power level of 10 microwatts. We then demonstrate coherent spectral phase measurements of pulses strongly dispersed by propagation over 50km of optical fiber.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner. "Spectral line by line pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 30, 1557-1559 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, "Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement," Opt. Lett. 26, 932-934 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467- (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Frumker, E. Tal, Y. Silberberg, and D. Majer, "Femtosecond pulse-shape modulation at nanosecond rates," Opt. Lett. 30, 2796-2798 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, "Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Express 16, 315-327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Characterization Using Spectral Line-by-Line Control," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2487- (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Trebino, Frequency resolved optical gating: The measurement of ultrashort optical pulses (Springer publications, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbüugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-886 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 921-922 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. -B. Huang, S. -G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding," Opt. Express 16, 2520-2527 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. http://www.andor.com/scientific_cameras/idus-ingaas/models/?iProductCodeID=71.
  18. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Characterization Using Spectral Line-by-Line Control," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2487- (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 921-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowie, J. L.

Cao, J.

Carruthers, T. F.

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 921-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

Daussy, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

Fatemi, F. K.

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 921-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fontaine, N. K.

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frumker, E.

Gu, X.

Heritage, J. P.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. -B.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iaconis, C.

Jennings, R. T.

Jiang, Z.

Joffre, M.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Kolner, B. H.

Kominato, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krumbüugel, M. A.

Kurokawa, T.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Lepetit, L.

Lopez, O.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. W.

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 921-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Majer, D.

Mandai, K.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, D.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Okamoto, K.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. -G.

Santarelli, G.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

Seo, D. S.

Shibata, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Sweetser, J. N.

Takahashi, H.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tal, E.

Trebino, R.

Tsuda, H.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weiner, A. M.

Willits, J. T.

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 921-922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Photon. (1)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.andor.com/scientific_cameras/idus-ingaas/models/?iProductCodeID=71.

R. Trebino, Frequency resolved optical gating: The measurement of ultrashort optical pulses (Springer publications, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic showing the generation of bandwidth limited pulses. At point (a) the frequency comb has a wide temporal envelope which is then phase corrected to obtain compressed bandwidth limited pulses at point (b). (b) Experimental setup, LP : linear polarizer, QWP : quarter wave plate, HWP : half wave plate, BS : beam splitter, PBS : polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Raw interferogram data obtained by the camera showing the two quadratures. (b) Retrieved spectral phase. (c) Experimental autocorrelations showing the reference pulse and the signal before and after applying the inverse of the retrieved phase.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Input and retrieved spectra. (b) Applied cubic phase and the retrieved spectral phase. (c) Time domain intensities generated using the retrieved spectrum and phase (retrieved) and the input spectrum and applied phase (simulated).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Retrieved spectral phases after propagation over 10km, 20km and 50km of optical fiber. The solid lines represent the quadratic fit. (b) The retrieved phase and the quadratic fit, shown without the unwrapping and (c) the corresponding residuals for for the 10 km fiber.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I1(ω)=As(ω)2+Ar(ω)2+2As(ω) Ar(ω) cos (Δψ(ω))
I2(ω)=As(ω)2+Ar(ω)2+2As(ω) Ar(ω) sin (Δψ(ω))
As2=(I1+I2)2±(I1+I2)22(I12+I22)4Ar4+4Ar2(I1+I2)2
Δψ(ω)=arg((I1(ω)As(ω)2Ar(ω)2)+j(I2(ω)As(ω)2Ar(ω)2)2As(ω)Ar(ω))
As2=(I1+I2)2(Ar2+2AsArsin(Δψ+π/4))(I1+I2)2(Ar22AsAr)

Metrics