Abstract

Very low vertical bending loss is demonstrated in a flexible metal waveguide. The waveguide consists of an 8 nm-thick and 68 mm-long Ag strip embedded in a free-standing multilayered low-loss polymer film. The polymer film is composed of a 10 μm-thick inner cladding with a refractive index of 1.524, and a pair of 20 μm-thick outer claddings which both have a refractive index of 1.514, resulting in a total thickness of 50 μm. The measured vertical bending loss is lower than 0.3 dB/180° at a wavelength of 1310 nm for the bending radii down to 2 mm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W.-K. Kim, W.-S. Yang, H.-M. Lee, H.-Y Lee, M-H Lee, and W.-J. Jung, "Leaky modes of curved long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 13043-13049 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, "Passive Integrated Optics Elements Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Berini and J. Lu, "Curved long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 2365-2371 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, "Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends," Phys. Rev. A 77, 021804(R) (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, S. Jacob, J. P. Noad, S. Chen, J. Ballato, and D. W. SmithJr., "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Appl. Opt. 47, 3892-3900 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.
  14. P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-Range Surface Plasmons on Ultrathin Membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Charbonneau, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, and P. Berini, "Broadside coupling to long-range surface plasmons using an angle-cleaved optical fiber," Appl. Lett. 92, 101102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Guo and R. Adato, "Extended long range plasmon waves in finite thickness metal film and layered dielectric materials," Opt. Express 14, 12409-12418 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Degiron, C. Dellagiacoma, J. G. McIlhargey, G. Shvets, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, "Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with application to 90° bends," Opt. Lett. 32, 2354-2356 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Buckley and P. Berini, "Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes," Opt. Express 15, 12174-12182 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (7)

A. Degiron, C. Dellagiacoma, J. G. McIlhargey, G. Shvets, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, "Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with application to 90° bends," Opt. Lett. 32, 2354-2356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, "Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes," Opt. Express 15, 12174-12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-Range Surface Plasmons on Ultrathin Membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

Ballato, J.

Berini, P.

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Breukelaar, I.

Buckley, R.

Callender, C. L.

Charbonneau, R.

R. Charbonneau, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, and P. Berini, "Broadside coupling to long-range surface plasmons using an angle-cleaved optical fiber," Appl. Lett. 92, 101102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-Range Surface Plasmons on Ultrathin Membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, "Passive Integrated Optics Elements Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Degiron, A.

Dellagiacoma, C.

Fafard, S.

Guo, J.

Jacob, S.

Jiang, J.

Ju, J. J.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Jung, W.-J.

Kim, J. T.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Kim, M.-s.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Kim, W.-K.

Kjaer, K.

Lahoud, N.

Larsen, M. S.

Lee, H.-M.

Lee, H.-Y

Lee, J.-M.

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Lee, M. H.

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Lee, M-H

Lee, W.-J.

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Leosson, K.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

R. Charbonneau, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, and P. Berini, "Broadside coupling to long-range surface plasmons using an angle-cleaved optical fiber," Appl. Lett. 92, 101102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Martin, O. J. F.

Mattiussi, G.

McIlhargey, J. G.

Nikolajsen, R.

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

Noad, J. P.

Park, S.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Park, S. K.

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 13133- 13138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M.-s. Kim, S. K. Park, J.-M. Lee, W.-J. Lee, and M.-H. Lee, "Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides," Opt. Expresssubmitted.

Park, Y. J.

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

Shvets, G.

Smith, D. R.

Smith, D. W.

Yang, W.-S.

Appl. Lett. (2)

R. Charbonneau, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, and P. Berini, "Broadside coupling to long-range surface plasmons using an angle-cleaved optical fiber," Appl. Lett. 92, 101102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M. H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface Plasmon waveguides," Appl. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (1)

J. J. Ju, M.-S. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, "10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-Range Surface Plasmons on Ultrathin Membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Park, M.-S. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M. H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 lm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, "Low-Loss Polymer-Based Long-Range Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, C. Harrison, N. M. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, "Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends," Phys. Rev. A 77, 021804(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic structure of an LRSPP waveguide with a single layer of cladding, (b) AFM image and thickness profile of a 4 μm-wide silver strip, (c) a picture of a fiber-pigtailed flexible LRSPP waveguide fabricated in this experiment, (d) a picture of a flexible LRSPP waveguide inserted within a slot with bending radius of 5 mm to measure the insertion loss induced by the bending. Bending loss can be measured for a 180° turn with a bending radius between 1 mm and 12 mm, and for smaller angles with bending radii of 20, 25, and 30 mm with two sets of mechanical components.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured bending loss of the flexible LRSPP waveguide with a single layer of cladding compared to the insertion loss of the waveguide before detachment from the substrate, marked as ∞ (straight).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic structure of a flexible LRSPP waveguide built to overcome optical bending loss with 8 nm-thick Ag strip embedded in a high-index inner cladding within low-index outer claddings. (b) Simulated bending loss of a dielectric slab which is composed of a 10 μm-thick inner slab with a refractive index of 1.524 without a metal strip and outer claddings with a refractive index of 1.514.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured bending loss of the flexible LRSPP waveguide with multilayer claddings (a) pigtailed from PMF to SMF, and (b) pigtailed from PMF to MMF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pictures of the experimental setup used to measure the output beam profile of the flexible LRSPP waveguide bent at various radii in (a) through (d), and twisted to 90° in (e). The beam profiles measured with the setup in (f) to (l), matched the pictures on the left. The right half of the beam profile simulated for a straight waveguide is in (m) for comparison.

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