Abstract

Thermal noise in multilayer optical coatings may not only limit the sensitivity of future gravitational wave detectors in their most sensitive frequency band but is also a major impediment for experiments that aim to reach the standard quantum limit or to cool mechanical systems to their quantum ground state. Here, we present the experimental realization and characterization of a cavity coupler, which is based on a surface relief guided-mode resonant grating. Since the required thickness of the dielectric coating is dramatically decreased compared to conventional mirrors, it is expected to provide low mechanical loss and, thus, low thermal noise. The cavity coupler was incorporated into a Fabry-Perot resonator together with a conventional high quality mirror. The finesse of this cavity was measured to be F = 657, which corresponds to a coupler reflectivity of R = 99.08 %.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Br¨uckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. T¨unnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33,264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

V. B. Braginsky and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Corner reflectors and quantum-non-demolition measurements in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 324,345-360 (2004)
[CrossRef]

B. A. Usievich, V. A. Sychugov, J. K. H. Nurligareev, and O. Parriaux, "Multilayer resonances sharpened by grating waveguide resonance," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36,109-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. Popov, M. Nevire, B. Gralak, and G. Tayeb, "Staircase approximation validity for arbitrary-shaped gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,33-42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Thermodynamical fluctuations and photo-thermal shot noise in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 264,1-10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Levin, "Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach," Phys. Rev. D 57,659-663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (2)

1985 (1)

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Armandula, H.

Aufmuth, P.

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, "Gravitational wave detectors," New J. Phys. 7,202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, E.

Black, E.

Br¨uckner, F.

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Corner reflectors and quantum-non-demolition measurements in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 324,345-360 (2004)
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Thermodynamical fluctuations and photo-thermal shot noise in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 264,1-10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bunkowski, A.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, O.

F. Br¨uckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. T¨unnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33,264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cagnoli, G.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrowstowski, L.

Clausnitzer, T.

Cohadon, P. F.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corbitt, T.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crooks, D. R. M.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, J.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Br¨uckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. T¨unnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33,264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Seifert, P. Kwee, M. Heurs, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, "Laser power stabilization for second-generation gravitational wave detectors," Opt. Lett. 31,2000-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, "Gravitational wave detectors," New J. Phys. 7,202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Faraji, B.

Fejer, M. M.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, D.

F. Br¨uckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. T¨unnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33,264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Gaylord, T. K.

Golubenko, G. A.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Thermodynamical fluctuations and photo-thermal shot noise in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 264,1-10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goßler, S.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gralak, B.

Gray, M. B.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gretarsson, A. M.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heidmann, A.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heurs, M.

Hough, J.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Innerhofer, E.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K¨ampfe, T.

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, R. Lalezari, "Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer," Opt. Lett. 17, 363-365 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, A. G.

Kittelberger, S. E.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

Koettig, T.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kwee, P.

Lalezari, R.

Levin, Y.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Levin, "Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach," Phys. Rev. D 57,659-663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mavalvala, N.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClelland, D. E.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, K.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mow-Lowry, C. M.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Ebhardt, H.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murray, P.

Nakagawa, N.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nawrodt, R.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nevire, M.

Nurligareev, J. K. H.

B. A. Usievich, V. A. Sychugov, J. K. H. Nurligareev, and O. Parriaux, "Multilayer resonances sharpened by grating waveguide resonance," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36,109-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ottaway, D.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parriaux, O.

Penn, S. D.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

Pinard, M.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D.

Popov, E.

Rehbein, H.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, S.

Rempe, G.

Rosenblatt, D.

Route, R.

Rowan, S.

G. M. Harry, H. Armandula, E. Black, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. D. Penn, "Thermal noise from optical coatings in gravitational wave detectors," Appl. Opt. 45,1569-1574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saulson, P. R.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Br¨uckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. T¨unnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33,264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, P.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, F.

Sharon, A.

Sigg, D.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneddon, P.

Startin, W. J.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Svakhin, A. S.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V. A.

B. A. Usievich, V. A. Sychugov, J. K. H. Nurligareev, and O. Parriaux, "Multilayer resonances sharpened by grating waveguide resonance," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36,109-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T¨unnermann, A.

F. Br¨uckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. T¨unnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33,264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

Tayeb, G.

Thompson, R. J.

Thorne, K. S.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

T. Clausnitzer, T. K¨ampfe, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, U. Peschel, A. V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, "An intelligible explanation of highly-efficient diffraction in deep dielectric rectangular transmission gratings," Opt. Express 13,10448-10456 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Usievich, B. A.

B. A. Usievich, V. A. Sychugov, J. K. H. Nurligareev, and O. Parriaux, "Multilayer resonances sharpened by grating waveguide resonance," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36,109-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vodel, W.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vyatchanin, S. P.

V. B. Braginsky and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Corner reflectors and quantum-non-demolition measurements in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 324,345-360 (2004)
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Thermodynamical fluctuations and photo-thermal shot noise in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 264,1-10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willke, B.

Wipf, C.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, A.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B. 31,97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (2)

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

New J. Phys. (2)

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, "Gravitational wave detectors," New J. Phys. 7,202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. A. Usievich, V. A. Sychugov, J. K. H. Nurligareev, and O. Parriaux, "Multilayer resonances sharpened by grating waveguide resonance," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36,109-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

V. B. Braginsky and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Corner reflectors and quantum-non-demolition measurements in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 324,345-360 (2004)
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Thermodynamical fluctuations and photo-thermal shot noise in gravitational wave antennae," Phys. Lett. A 264,1-10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev. A 76,053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

Y. Levin, "Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach," Phys. Rev. D 57,659-663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Müller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Müller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev D. (1)

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Agresti, G. Castaldi, R. DeSalvo, V. Galdi, V. Pierro, and I. M. Pinto, "Optimized multilayer dielectric mirror coatings for gravitational wave interferometers," Proc. SPIE 6286, (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fundamental principle of resonant waveguide gratings in a simplified ray picture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left hand side: Top view of the fabricated resonant waveguide grating with trapezoidal grating profile. The accurate values for the fill factors arose from the spectral fit in Fig. 3. Right hand side: Cross-sectional view of a related grating with the same groove depth but different fill factor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral zeroth order transmittance of the resonant grating-based cavity coupler under normal incidence and for TM-polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental setup for the characterization of the waveguide grating (WGG) as a cavity coupling mirror. Electro-optical-modulator (EOM), modecleaner (MC), photodiode (PD). (b) Scan over one airy peak (red) of linewidth 461 kHz measured in transmission (PD1). The cavity detuning was calibrated via the demodulated signal (green) in reflection of the cavity (PD2).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d<λ (to permit only zeroth order in air),
λ/nH<d (first orders in high-index layer) ,
d<λ/nL (only zeroth order in the substrate) ,
ρ1ρ2=2cos(πF)(cos(πF)2)21,

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