Abstract

We propose a novel hybrid optical sensing system for standalone, chip-scale sensing applications. The hybrid optical sensing system detects any spectral shift of the microresonator sensor output by estimating the effective refractive index using maximum likelihood estimation. The performance evaluation of the proposed hybrid sensing system in the Gaussian-noise dominant environment shows excellent estimation accuracy. This innovative approach allows fully functional integrated hybrid sensing systems, offering great potential in various chip-scale sensing applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

2007 (5)

A. Gholipour and R. Faraji-Dana, "Nonuniform Arrayed Waveguide Gratings for Flat-Top Passband Transfer Function," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3678-3685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, "Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Comprehensive Review," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1118-1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "Integrated Thin Film Photodetectors with Vertically Coupled Microring Resonators for Chip Scale Spectral Analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "A Polymer Microdisk Photonic Sensor Integrated Onto Silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096-2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, J. Homola, "Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems," Sens. Actuators, B Chem. 113, 774-781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Momtahan, C. R. Hsieh, A. Adibi, and D. J. Brady, "Analysis of slitless holographic spectrometers implemented by spherical beam volume holograms," Appl. Opt. 45, 2955-2964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, "Polymer Microresonator Strain Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

I. Kiyat, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, "Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk Lasers Vertically Coupled to Ouput Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, A. K. Sood, and N. Kumar, "Carbon Nanotube Flow Sensors," Science 299, 1042-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, "Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 908-910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Godin, V. Tabarad-Cossa, P. Grutter, and P. Williams, "Quantitative surface stress measurements using a microcantilever," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission Characteristics of Arrayed Waveguide N × N Wavelength Multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, J. Homola, "Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems," Sens. Actuators, B Chem. 113, 774-781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, "Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhola, B.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, "Polymer Microresonator Strain Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Cho, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cho and R. Soref, "Interferometric microring-resonant 2 x 2 optical switches," Opt. Express 16, 13304-13314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "Integrated Thin Film Photodetectors with Vertically Coupled Microring Resonators for Chip Scale Spectral Analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "A Polymer Microdisk Photonic Sensor Integrated Onto Silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096-2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk Lasers Vertically Coupled to Ouput Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk Lasers Vertically Coupled to Ouput Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dale, P. S.

Dam, C. V.

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk Lasers Vertically Coupled to Ouput Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Desai, J.C. T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djordjev, K.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk Lasers Vertically Coupled to Ouput Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dostalek, J.

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, J. Homola, "Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems," Sens. Actuators, B Chem. 113, 774-781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dubendorfer, J.

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, "Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 908-910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Faraji-Dana, R.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, W.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gholipour, A.

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. K. Sood, and N. Kumar, "Carbon Nanotube Flow Sensors," Science 299, 1042-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Godin, M.

M. Godin, V. Tabarad-Cossa, P. Grutter, and P. Williams, "Quantitative surface stress measurements using a microcantilever," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grutter, P.

M. Godin, V. Tabarad-Cossa, P. Grutter, and P. Williams, "Quantitative surface stress measurements using a microcantilever," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, "Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Comprehensive Review," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1118-1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, J. Homola, "Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems," Sens. Actuators, B Chem. 113, 774-781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. R.

Hua, P.

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission Characteristics of Arrayed Waveguide N × N Wavelength Multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jha, R.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, "Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Comprehensive Review," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1118-1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jobet, G.

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "Integrated Thin Film Photodetectors with Vertically Coupled Microring Resonators for Chip Scale Spectral Analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "A Polymer Microdisk Photonic Sensor Integrated Onto Silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096-2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, K.

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, "Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, C.

I. Kiyat, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, "Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, N.

S. Ghosh, A. K. Sood, and N. Kumar, "Carbon Nanotube Flow Sensors," Science 299, 1042-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunz, R. E.

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.

M. Kwon and W. H. Steier, "Microring-resonator-based sensor measuring both the concentration and temperature of a solution," Opt Express 16, 9372-9377 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

Luff, B. J.

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Momtahan, O.

Moser, I.

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission Characteristics of Arrayed Waveguide N × N Wavelength Multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, K.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Quigley, G. R.

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sai, C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, "Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Comprehensive Review," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1118-1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.-C.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, "Polymer Microresonator Strain Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A. K.

S. Ghosh, A. K. Sood, and N. Kumar, "Carbon Nanotube Flow Sensors," Science 299, 1042-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steier, W. H.

M. Kwon and W. H. Steier, "Microring-resonator-based sensor measuring both the concentration and temperature of a solution," Opt Express 16, 9372-9377 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, "Polymer Microresonator Strain Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

Tabarad-Cossa, V.

M. Godin, V. Tabarad-Cossa, P. Grutter, and P. Williams, "Quantitative surface stress measurements using a microcantilever," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission Characteristics of Arrayed Waveguide N × N Wavelength Multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tazawa, H.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, "Polymer Microresonator Strain Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission Characteristics of Arrayed Waveguide N × N Wavelength Multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urban, G.

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

White, I. M.

Wilkinson, J. S.

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P.

M. Godin, V. Tabarad-Cossa, P. Grutter, and P. Williams, "Quantitative surface stress measurements using a microcantilever," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Fan, "Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 908-910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "Integrated Thin Film Photodetectors with Vertically Coupled Microring Resonators for Chip Scale Spectral Analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Godin, V. Tabarad-Cossa, P. Grutter, and P. Williams, "Quantitative surface stress measurements using a microcantilever," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "PHASAR-Based WDM-Devices: Principles, Design and Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, J.C. T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, K. Oliver, V. Van, C. Sai, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, "Polymer Microresonator Strain Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, "A Polymer Microdisk Photonic Sensor Integrated Onto Silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096-2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk Lasers Vertically Coupled to Ouput Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, "Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Comprehensive Review," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1118-1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, and Y. Inoue, "Transmission Characteristics of Arrayed Waveguide N × N Wavelength Multiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 447-455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Gholipour and R. Faraji-Dana, "Nonuniform Arrayed Waveguide Gratings for Flat-Top Passband Transfer Function," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3678-3685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

I. Kiyat, C. Kocabas, and A. Aydinli, "Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 374-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Express (1)

M. Kwon and W. H. Steier, "Microring-resonator-based sensor measuring both the concentration and temperature of a solution," Opt Express 16, 9372-9377 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Science (2)

S. Ghosh, A. K. Sood, and N. Kumar, "Carbon Nanotube Flow Sensors," Science 299, 1042-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators, B Chem (2)

P. Hua, B. J. Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators, B Chem 87, 250-257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Dubendorfer, R. E. Kunz, G. Jobet, I. Moser, G. Urban, "Integrated optical pH sensor using replicated chirped grating coupler sensor chips," Sens. Actuators, B Chem,  50, 210-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators, B Chem. (1)

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, J. Homola, "Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems," Sens. Actuators, B Chem. 113, 774-781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. A. Huque, M. R. Haider, M. Zhang, T. Oh, and S. K. Islam, "A Low Power, Low Voltage Current Read-Out Circuit for Implantable Electro-Chemical Sensors," in Proceeding of the IEEE Sensors 2007, Atlanta, GA, Oct. 2007, pp. 39-40.

S.-Y. Cho, G. Dobbs, N. Jokerst, B. Mizaikoff, "Surface Customized Optical Microresonator Sensors for Integrated Chip-Scale Portable Sensing Applications," in Proceeding of the IEEE Sensors 2007, Atlanta, GA, Oct. 2007, pp. 651-652.

S.-Y. Cho, G. Dobbs, N. M. Jokerst, B. Mizaikoff, T. Cooper, "Optical Microring Resonator Sensors with Selective Membrane Surface Customization," in Proceeding of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007, Baltimore, Maryland, Paper CWE4.

S. R. Bhalotra, H. L. Kung, J. Fu, N. C. Helman, O. Levi, D. A. B. Miller, J. S. HarrisJr., "Integrated standing-wave transform spectrometer for near infrared optical analysis," in Proceedings of 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Glasgow, UK, Nov 10-14 2002, pp. 105-106.

Product literature, "100GHz, Wideband (Flat Top) Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG)." From JDS Uniphase Corporation. http://www.jdsunph.com/product-literature/awg100w_ds_cc_ae_031306.pdf.

L. Scharf, Statistical Signal Processing Detection, Estimation, and Time Series Analysis, (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic diagram of the hybrid optical sensing system (inset: uniformly sampled spectral response of a resonator sensor in the presence of normally distributed random noise).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). RMSE performance for different numbers of PDs with M=100, (b). RMSE performance for different numbers of time samples per PD with 25 PDs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RMSE performance for different spectral characteristics of microresonator sensors: (a) asymmetric spectral responses caused by undesired Fabry-Pérot resonance and (b) different quality factors due to different coupling conditions.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tnλ=(αrejk0(2πnR))/(rαejk0(2πnR))2 ,
yk[l]=Tk(n)+wk[l],
J(n)=Mk=1NTk2(n)2k=1NTk(n)xk ,
RMSE=1Kk=1K(nn(k̂))2
Tr=R×P×M×P×R,
R=1j1ρ2 (1ρρ1) , P=(e00e),M=(t001t),TFnλ=Det[Tr]Tr(2,2)2

Metrics