Abstract

We review recent experimental and theoretical work on the use of counterpropagating light to enhance high-order harmonic generation through all-optical quasi-phase matching. Also presented is a new technique for measuring the coherence of high harmonics in the nonlinear medium. This information is crucial for understanding the process of harmonic generation over extended distances, as well as for effective enhancement using quasi-phase matching techniques.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DeMauro, "Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit," Nat. Phys. Advance Online Publication 23 March 2008 (doi:10.1038/nphys914)

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quantum path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies," New J. Phys. 10, 025021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, P. Arpin, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quasi-phase matching of high order harmonic generation at high photon energies using counterpropagating pulses," Opt. Lett. 33,174-176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (18)

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Holography: Dynamic Monitoring of Surface Deformation," Opt. Lett. 32, 286 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, and M. C. Downer, "Direct experimental observation of periodic intensity modulation along a straight hollow-core optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1025-1029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, M. Landreman, and S. M. Hooker, "Quasi-phasematching of harmonic generation via multimode beating in waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 7894-7900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Landreman, K. O'Keefe, T. Robinson, M. Zepf, B. Dromey, and S. Hooker, "Comparison of parallel and perpendicular polarized counterpropagating light for suppressing high harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2421-2427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counter propagating pulse trains," Opt. Lett. 32, 2975-2977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, "Enhanced phase-matching for generation of soft X-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases," Opt. Express 15, 15351-15364 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. E. Grisham, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Xe, Kr, and Ar in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, T. Popmintchev, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Unified microscopic-macroscopic formulation of high-order difference-frequency mixing in plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Grating-Assisted Phase Matching in Extreme Nonlinear Optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Auguste, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonics using a modulated atomic density," Phys. Rev. A 76, 011802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Seres, V. Yakovlev, E. Seres, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources," Nat. Phys. 3, 878-883 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Zepf, B. Dromey, M. Landreman, P. Foster, and S. M. Hooker, "Bright Quasi-Phase-matched Soft-X-Ray Harmonic Radiation from Argon Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Probe of high-order harmonic generation using counterpropagating light in a hollow waveguide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Quasi-phase matching and quantum path control of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating light," Nat. Phys. 3, 270-275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, "Harnessing Attosecond Science in the Quest for Coherent X-Rays," Science 317, 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

L. Miaja, G. Saathoff, T. Lei, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, M. Aeschlimann, and J. Gland, "Observation of the Laser-Assisted Photoelectric Effect on Pt (111)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, "X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Monitoring Molecular Dynamics using Coherent Electrons from High-Harmonic Generation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 103, 13279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. Grisham, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. J. Rocca, "High-order harmonic generation from ions in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

M. Wieland, C. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, "Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation," Ultramicroscopy 102, 93-100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, "Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules," Nature 435, 470-474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X-rays from Lasers," Phys. Today 58, 5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Zhang, A. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, A. Paul, N. Wagner, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Phase matching, quasi-phase matching, and pulse compression in a single waveguide for enhanced high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 30, 3-5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gordon, and F. X. Kartner, "Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength," Opt. Express 13, 2941-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, "Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1357-1359 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sutherland, E. L. Christensen, N. D. Powers, S. E. Rhynard, J. C. Painter, and J. Peatross, "High harmonic generation in a semi-infinite gas cell," Opt. Express 12, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Wagner, E. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867--871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lynga, P. Colosimo, J. D. D. Martin, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, "Scaled intense laser-atom physics: the long wavelength regime," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 441-450 (2003).

H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs," Nature 421, 826-829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, F. Weihe, F. Auge, T. Lefrou, G. Grillon, S. Sebban, and P. Balcou, "Observation of high-contrast coherence fringes in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 68, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Shan, and Z. H. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (5)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, R. Bartels, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale intra-atomic phase matching of high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5458-5461 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent X-ray generation," Chem. Phys. 267, 277-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, J.-H. Kim, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Nonadiabatic blueshift of high-order harmonics from Ar and Ne atoms in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. A 63, 053407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides," Opt. Express 7, 5 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, "Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays," Science 280, 1412-1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the "Single-Cycle" Regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251 - 1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross, S. Voronov, and I. Prokopovich, "Selective zoning of high harmonic emission using counter-propagating light," Opt. Express 1, 114-124 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched nonlinear interactions and devices," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 549-592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salieres, and A. L'Huillier, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peatross, M. V. Fedorov, and K. C. Kulander, "Intensity-dependent phase-matching effects in Harmonic-Generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

P. L. Shkolnikov, A. Lago, and A. E. Kaplan, "Optimal quasi-phase-matching for high-order harmonic-generation in gases and plasma," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4461-R4464 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L'Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, "Nonlinear-Optical Frequency-Conversion," Phys. Today 47, 25-32 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-Phase-Matched 2nd Harmonic-Generation - Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in a varying electromagnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (Sov. Phys. JETP)  91, 2008-2012 (1986).

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 24 (1964).

1962 (2)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 4 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

L. Miaja, G. Saathoff, T. Lei, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, M. Aeschlimann, and J. Gland, "Observation of the Laser-Assisted Photoelectric Effect on Pt (111)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DeMauro, "Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit," Nat. Phys. Advance Online Publication 23 March 2008 (doi:10.1038/nphys914)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lynga, P. Colosimo, J. D. D. Martin, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, "Scaled intense laser-atom physics: the long wavelength regime," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 441-450 (2003).

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, "Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in a varying electromagnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (Sov. Phys. JETP)  91, 2008-2012 (1986).

Aquila, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Arpin, P.

Attwood, D. T.

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, "Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1357-1359 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Auge, F.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, F. Weihe, F. Auge, T. Lefrou, G. Grillon, S. Sebban, and P. Balcou, "Observation of high-contrast coherence fringes in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 68, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

T. Auguste, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonics using a modulated atomic density," Phys. Rev. A 76, 011802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, "Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1357-1359 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent X-ray generation," Chem. Phys. 267, 277-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays," Science 280, 1412-1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, F. Weihe, F. Auge, T. Lefrou, G. Grillon, S. Sebban, and P. Balcou, "Observation of high-contrast coherence fringes in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 68, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent X-ray generation," Chem. Phys. 267, 277-289 (2001).
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X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, "Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1357-1359 (2004).
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N. Wagner, E. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
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R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent X-ray generation," Chem. Phys. 267, 277-289 (2001).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
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H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X-rays from Lasers," Phys. Today 58, 5 (2005).
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X. S. Zhang, A. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, A. Paul, N. Wagner, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Phase matching, quasi-phase matching, and pulse compression in a single waveguide for enhanced high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 30, 3-5 (2005).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
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E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374 (2007).
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X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quantum path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies," New J. Phys. 10, 025021 (2008).
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R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Holography: Dynamic Monitoring of Surface Deformation," Opt. Lett. 32, 286 (2007).
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O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counter propagating pulse trains," Opt. Lett. 32, 2975-2977 (2007).
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O. Cohen, T. Popmintchev, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Unified microscopic-macroscopic formulation of high-order difference-frequency mixing in plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043903 (2007).
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H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, "Harnessing Attosecond Science in the Quest for Coherent X-Rays," Science 317, 775 (2007).
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R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Grating-Assisted Phase Matching in Extreme Nonlinear Optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
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X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Quasi-phase matching and quantum path control of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating light," Nat. Phys. 3, 270-275 (2007).
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E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, "Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4 (1999).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
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B. A. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. E. Grisham, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Xe, Kr, and Ar in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013816 (2007).
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O. Cohen, T. Popmintchev, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Unified microscopic-macroscopic formulation of high-order difference-frequency mixing in plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043903 (2007).
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D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. Grisham, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. J. Rocca, "High-order harmonic generation from ions in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006).
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N. Wagner, E. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
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L. Miaja, G. Saathoff, T. Lei, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, M. Aeschlimann, and J. Gland, "Observation of the Laser-Assisted Photoelectric Effect on Pt (111)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).

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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
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D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. Grisham, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. J. Rocca, "High-order harmonic generation from ions in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006).
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B. A. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. E. Grisham, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Xe, Kr, and Ar in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013816 (2007).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
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R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297-300 (1998).
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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays," Science 280, 1412-1414 (1998).
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R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, J.-H. Kim, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Nonadiabatic blueshift of high-order harmonics from Ar and Ne atoms in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. A 63, 053407 (2001).
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H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs," Nature 421, 826-829 (2003).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L'Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 15 (1994).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
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M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-Phase-Matched 2nd Harmonic-Generation - Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
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P. L. Shkolnikov, A. Lago, and A. E. Kaplan, "Optimal quasi-phase-matching for high-order harmonic-generation in gases and plasma," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4461-R4464 (1994).
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R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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N. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Monitoring Molecular Dynamics using Coherent Electrons from High-Harmonic Generation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 103, 13279 (2006).
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L. Miaja, G. Saathoff, T. Lei, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, M. Aeschlimann, and J. Gland, "Observation of the Laser-Assisted Photoelectric Effect on Pt (111)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).

X. S. Zhang, A. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, A. Paul, N. Wagner, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Phase matching, quasi-phase matching, and pulse compression in a single waveguide for enhanced high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 30, 3-5 (2005).
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N. Wagner, E. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent X-ray generation," Chem. Phys. 267, 277-289 (2001).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quantum path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies," New J. Phys. 10, 025021 (2008).
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X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
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A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, P. Arpin, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quasi-phase matching of high order harmonic generation at high photon energies using counterpropagating pulses," Opt. Lett. 33,174-176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Holography: Dynamic Monitoring of Surface Deformation," Opt. Lett. 32, 286 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counter propagating pulse trains," Opt. Lett. 32, 2975-2977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, T. Popmintchev, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Unified microscopic-macroscopic formulation of high-order difference-frequency mixing in plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, "Harnessing Attosecond Science in the Quest for Coherent X-Rays," Science 317, 775 (2007).
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B. A. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. E. Grisham, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Xe, Kr, and Ar in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Grating-Assisted Phase Matching in Extreme Nonlinear Optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Probe of high-order harmonic generation using counterpropagating light in a hollow waveguide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Quasi-phase matching and quantum path control of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating light," Nat. Phys. 3, 270-275 (2007).
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D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. Grisham, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. J. Rocca, "High-order harmonic generation from ions in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X-rays from Lasers," Phys. Today 58, 5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, "Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1357-1359 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
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I. P. Christov, R. Bartels, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale intra-atomic phase matching of high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5458-5461 (2001).
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I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quasi-phase matching of high-harmonics and attosecond pulses in modulated waveguides," Opt. Express 7, 5 (2000).
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R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164-166 (2000).
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S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
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R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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Spielmann, C.

J. Seres, V. Yakovlev, E. Seres, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources," Nat. Phys. 3, 878-883 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, "X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wieland, C. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, "Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation," Ultramicroscopy 102, 93-100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Streli, C.

J. Seres, V. Yakovlev, E. Seres, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources," Nat. Phys. 3, 878-883 (2007).
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J. R. Sutherland, E. L. Christensen, N. D. Powers, S. E. Rhynard, J. C. Painter, and J. Peatross, "High harmonic generation in a semi-infinite gas cell," Opt. Express 12, 6 (2004).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DeMauro, "Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit," Nat. Phys. Advance Online Publication 23 March 2008 (doi:10.1038/nphys914)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
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P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 4 (1962).
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S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Titensor, J.

S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
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A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
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Tobey, R. I.

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 3 (2001).
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M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297-300 (1998).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentin, C.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, F. Weihe, F. Auge, T. Lefrou, G. Grillon, S. Sebban, and P. Balcou, "Observation of high-contrast coherence fringes in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 68, 7 (2003).
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R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164-166 (2000).
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Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867--871 (2004).
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H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs," Nature 421, 826-829 (2003).
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Voronov, S.

Voronov, S. L.

S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Monitoring Molecular Dynamics using Coherent Electrons from High-Harmonic Generation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 103, 13279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Zhang, A. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, A. Paul, N. Wagner, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Phase matching, quasi-phase matching, and pulse compression in a single waveguide for enhanced high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 30, 3-5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Wagner, E. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297-300 (1998).
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B. A. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. E. Grisham, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Xe, Kr, and Ar in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013816 (2007).
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D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. Grisham, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. J. Rocca, "High-order harmonic generation from ions in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihe, F.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, F. Weihe, F. Auge, T. Lefrou, G. Grillon, S. Sebban, and P. Balcou, "Observation of high-contrast coherence fringes in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 68, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiman, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

M. Wieland, C. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, "Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation," Ultramicroscopy 102, 93-100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DeMauro, "Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit," Nat. Phys. Advance Online Publication 23 March 2008 (doi:10.1038/nphys914)

Wieland, M.

M. Wieland, C. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, "Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation," Ultramicroscopy 102, 93-100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Wieland, C. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, "Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation," Ultramicroscopy 102, 93-100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wobrauschek, P.

J. Seres, V. Yakovlev, E. Seres, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources," Nat. Phys. 3, 878-883 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wüest, A.

N. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Monitoring Molecular Dynamics using Coherent Electrons from High-Harmonic Generation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 103, 13279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakoviev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

J. Seres, V. Yakovlev, E. Seres, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources," Nat. Phys. 3, 878-883 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

Zeek, E.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867--871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zepf, M.

Zhang, X.

A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, P. Arpin, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quasi-phase matching of high order harmonic generation at high photon energies using counterpropagating pulses," Opt. Lett. 33,174-176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quantum path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies," New J. Phys. 10, 025021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Optimizing quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation using counter propagating pulse trains," Opt. Lett. 32, 2975-2977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Quasi-phase matching and quantum path control of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating light," Nat. Phys. 3, 270-275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Probe of high-order harmonic generation using counterpropagating light in a hollow waveguide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Grating-Assisted Phase Matching in Extreme Nonlinear Optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, "Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1357-1359 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. S.

X. S. Zhang, A. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, A. Paul, N. Wagner, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Phase matching, quasi-phase matching, and pulse compression in a single waveguide for enhanced high-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 30, 3-5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Quasi-phase matching and quantum path control of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating light," Nat. Phys. 3, 270-275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Monitoring Molecular Dynamics using Coherent Electrons from High-Harmonic Generation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 103, 13279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. B.

X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Advance Online Publication (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DeMauro, "Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit," Nat. Phys. Advance Online Publication 23 March 2008 (doi:10.1038/nphys914)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
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E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, "X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).
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Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, I. Christov, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale feedback control of coherent X-ray generation," Chem. Phys. 267, 277-289 (2001).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-Phase-Matched 2nd Harmonic-Generation - Tuning and Tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
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T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lynga, P. Colosimo, J. D. D. Martin, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, "Scaled intense laser-atom physics: the long wavelength regime," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 441-450 (2003).

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J. Seres, V. Yakovlev, E. Seres, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources," Nat. Phys. 3, 878-883 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Quasi-phase matching and quantum path control of high harmonic generation using counterpropagating light," Nat. Phys. 3, 270-275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (8)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164-166 (2000).
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A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and S. Backus, "Quasi phase matched generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, "Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules," Nature 435, 470-474 (2005).
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H. Niikura, F. Legare, R. Hasbani, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs," Nature 421, 826-829 (2003).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, "Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals," Nature 432, 867--871 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinizi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Quantum path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies," New J. Phys. 10, 025021 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
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Phys. Rev. A (10)

B. Shan, and Z. H. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2002).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L'Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 15 (1994).
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P. L. Shkolnikov, A. Lago, and A. E. Kaplan, "Optimal quasi-phase-matching for high-order harmonic-generation in gases and plasma," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4461-R4464 (1994).
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T. Auguste, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, "Quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonics using a modulated atomic density," Phys. Rev. A 76, 011802 (2007).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Salieres, and A. L'Huillier, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747 (1995).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission," Phys. Rev. A 58, R30-R33 (1998).
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H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, J.-H. Kim, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, "Nonadiabatic blueshift of high-order harmonics from Ar and Ne atoms in an intense femtosecond laser field," Phys. Rev. A 63, 053407 (2001).
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B. A. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. E. Grisham, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Xe, Kr, and Ar in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, F. Weihe, F. Auge, T. Lefrou, G. Grillon, S. Sebban, and P. Balcou, "Observation of high-contrast coherence fringes in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 68, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (20)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, "Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4 (1999).
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S. L. Voronov, I. Kohl, J. B. Madsen, J. Simmons, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang, and J. Peatross, "Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
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N. Wagner, E. Gibson, T. Popmintchev, I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Self-compression of ultrashort pulses through ionization-induced spatio-temporal reshaping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 4 (1962).
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I. P. Christov, R. Bartels, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Attosecond time-scale intra-atomic phase matching of high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5458-5461 (2001).
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I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the "Single-Cycle" Regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251 - 1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, T. Popmintchev, D. M. Gaudiosi, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Unified microscopic-macroscopic formulation of high-order difference-frequency mixing in plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Grating-Assisted Phase Matching in Extreme Nonlinear Optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zepf, B. Dromey, M. Landreman, P. Foster, and S. M. Hooker, "Bright Quasi-Phase-matched Soft-X-Ray Harmonic Radiation from Argon Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143901 (2007).
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A. L. Lytle, X. Zhang, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, "Probe of high-order harmonic generation using counterpropagating light in a hollow waveguide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123904 (2007).
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P. Salieres, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776-3779 (1995).
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P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Miaja, G. Saathoff, T. Lei, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, M. Aeschlimann, and J. Gland, "Observation of the Laser-Assisted Photoelectric Effect on Pt (111)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113604 (2006).

X. B. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High-order harmonic generation up to 250 eV from highly ionized argon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gaudiosi, B. Reagan, T. Popmintchev, M. Grisham, M. Berrill, O. Cohen, B. C. Walker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. J. Rocca, "High-order harmonic generation from ions in a capillary discharge," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 203001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hansch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, "Lensless diffractive imaging using coherent high harmonic beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (2)

M. M. Fejer, "Nonlinear-Optical Frequency-Conversion," Phys. Today 47, 25-32 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X-rays from Lasers," Phys. Today 58, 5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA (1)

N. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "Monitoring Molecular Dynamics using Coherent Electrons from High-Harmonic Generation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 103, 13279 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (6)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser," Science 297, 376 - 378 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays," Science 280, 1412-1414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, "Harnessing Attosecond Science in the Quest for Coherent X-Rays," Science 317, 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302, 95-97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in a varying electromagnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (Sov. Phys. JETP)  91, 2008-2012 (1986).

Ultramicroscopy (1)

M. Wieland, C. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, "Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation," Ultramicroscopy 102, 93-100 (2005).
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Other (2)

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, "Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization, and harmonic conversion," in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, A. L. H. B. Piraux, and K. Rzazewski, ed., (Plenum, Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium, 1993), pp. 95-110.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chan, O. Cohen, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Extended Phase-Matching of High-Order Harmonics Driven by Mid-Infrared Light," Opt. Lett. (submitted for publication).
[PubMed]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic for HHG in a hollow waveguide, illustrating the use of counterpropagating light to compensate for phase mismatch using all-optical quasi phase matching [1].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for measuring the in-situ coherence length and implementing alloptical QPM using counterpropagating pulses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measuring the coherence length of HHG generated in a hollow waveguide. a) A schematic of the coherence zones present within a waveguide when the phase mismatch is nonzero. For N total coherence zones, the total harmonic signal detected is from only the final Nth zone, since all other “in-phase” zones can be paired with a destructively interfering “out-of-phase” zone. (b) The effect of a single counterpropagating pulse on the high harmonic emission q=37-45 [58]. By monitoring the harmonic spectra from low pressure argon as a function of the position, z, of the overlap region between the forward- and counterpropagating pulses, the in-situ, local, coherence length can be directly visualized.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spatial variations in the local coherence length of HHG with propagation distance in a hollow waveguide. (a). Loss mechanisms lead to an increasing coherence length with propagation distance. (b). Modebeating causes the harmonic emission to be localized in the waveguide at a periodicity of ~2.2 cm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Coherence length vs harmonic order in 5 torr argon at a single location in the hollow waveguide, as well as calculated dependences at different levels of ionization. Measured LC decreases faster than 1/q due to increasing ionization levels with harmonic order. (b). Time of harmonic generation within the generating ultrafast pulse for three harmonic orders, based on the measured coherence length, and the inferred ionization level calcuated using ADK ionization rates. Dotted lines indicate the energetically allowed ranges for the same harmonics, based on the cutoff rule [57].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulation of a scan of counterpropagating pulse when the strength of harmonic field and Lc do not vary along propagation. a) A constant ionization rate with propagation and b) the variation in the intensity of the detected harmonic signal for the scan of a single counterpropagating pulse, showing coherent ringing.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulation of the HHG output when a) the ionization rate varies due to mode beating, for b) the scan of a single counterpropagating pulse, and d) the scan of a second counterpropagating pulse when the first is held fixed at z/Lc=15. The model assumes an interaction between the two lowest order coupled modes, which induce a periodic variation of intensity, shown in c).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Harmonic spectra observed in 8 torr argon as a function of the position of the overlap region, z, between the forward- and counterpropagating pulses. a) A single counterpropagating pulse is scanned through the interaction region, showing little coherent ringing. b) A second counterpropagating pulse is scanned through the interaction region, while the first remains stationary at z≈6 mm. Here, strong coherence is observed.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). Observed harmonic emission from argon for no (gray), one (blue), and three (red) counterpropagating pulses. Phase-matched emission from 100 torr helium (dashed black) is included for comparison. (b). Enhancement factor as a function of harmonic order, for one (blue) and three (red) counterpropagating pulses [58].

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

All-optical QPM of HHG in argon, with a train of up to four counterpropagating pulses.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Tuning the selectivity of all-optical QPM using two counterpropagating pulses, by varying their separation. The effective pulse widths of each pulse was ~300 µm. A schematic illustrating this effect is shown in a). Enhancement occurs when the pulse separation is 2NLC. Selectivity improves when N>1. HHG spectra from argon, in b), show the shift of the enhancement with harmonic order as the separation between the pulses is varied.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a). Observed harmonic emission from 110 torr helium for no (gray), one (blue), and two (red) counterpropagating pulses. The dotted curve shows harmonic emission under similar laser conditions, but at a pressure of 500 torr, which is optimal for conventionally phase matching lower harmonic orders, below q=77. (b). Enhancement factors for harmonic orders q=79-95. Red circles show the ratio of the quasi-phase matched emission obtained using a train of two counterpropagating pulses to that without counterpropagating light at a pressure of 110 torr. Black squares show the ratio of quasi-phase matched emission at 110 torr to that without counterpropagating pulses at a pressure of 500 torr [27].

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

(a). Schematic of optically-induced phase matching in high harmonic generation by quasi-CW counterpropagating light. (b). The combination of the medium phase mismatch and the optically induced sinusoidal oscillation in the phase of the high-order polarization results in a correction of the phase mismatch associated with the frequency conversion process. The optically induced oscillation in the phase of the high-order polarization is formally equivalent to the presence of oscillations in the refractive index for the driving laser. Variations in the refractive index were suggested for correcting the phase mismatch in low order harmonic generation via grating-assisted phase matching [48].

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Grating-assisted phase matching using counterpropagating light. (a). Harmonic spectral intensity with (solid blue) and without (dashed black) a counterpropagating field.

Equations (8)

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h υ max = I p + 3.2 U p ,
Δ k = q { ( u 11 2 λ 0 4 π a 2 ) P ( ( 1 η ) 2 π λ 0 δ n η [ N a tm r e λ 0 ] ) } ,
η cr = [ ( λ o N a tm 2 π δ n ) ( 1 1 q 2 ) + 1 ] 1 .
Δ Φ I ( z ) Δ I ( z ) E F 2 r cos ( 2 π z Λ ) .
ξ = 1 Λ 0 Λ exp [ i Δ Φ I ( z ) ] d z = 1 Λ 0 Λ exp [ i A cos ( 2 π Λ z ) ] d z = J 0 ( A ) .
E HHG ( L ) = 0 L E HHG 0 ( z ) exp ( i π L C ( z ) z ) d z ,
E HHG ( L ) 0 L exp [ i ( π z L c + A cos ( 2 π z Λ ) ) ] d z ,
E HHG ( L ) L · J 1 ( A ) ,

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