Abstract

Resonant properties of optically thin metamaterials are studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Both the lower energy inductorcapacitor (LC) and the higher energy dipole resonances of the planar double split-ring resonators (SRRs) exhibit characteristic evolution with various sub-skin-depth thicknesses of the constituent Pb film. The signature of the LC resonance begins to emerge at a critical thickness near 0.15 skin depth. The resonances reveal a characteristic enhancement; they are strengthened remarkably with increasing SRR thicknesses at sub-skin-depth level and then gradually saturate beyond the skin depth.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

2007 (6)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O?? Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O??Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, "Reduced conductivity in the terahertz skin-depth layer of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

2006 (4)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, J. M. Dai, and W. Zhang, "Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 31, 634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

J. W. C. De Vries, "Temperature and thickness dependence of the resistivity of thin polycrystalline aluminum, cobalt, nickel, palladium, silver and gold films," Thin Solid Films 167, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Akyurtlu, A.

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Andreev, G. O.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O?? Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

J. F. O??Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O?? Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Dai, J. M.

De Vries, J. W. C.

J. W. C. De Vries, "Temperature and thickness dependence of the resistivity of thin polycrystalline aluminum, cobalt, nickel, palladium, silver and gold films," Thin Solid Films 167, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Debus, C.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, Ch.

Freeman, M. R.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Goodhue, W. D.

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Gundogdu, T. F.

Hajar, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Han, J.

Hegmann, F. A.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Kang, Z.

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

Keiding, S.

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

Kostopoulos, A.

Laman, N.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, "Reduced conductivity in the terahertz skin-depth layer of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marques, R.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martel, J.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Median, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mesa, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O?? Hara, J. F.

O??Hara, J. F.

J. F. O??Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, "Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations," Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O??Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sherstan, C.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

J. F. O??Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, "Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations," Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O??Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soukolis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Stewart, W.

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

J. F. O??Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, "Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations," Opt. Express 16, 1786 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O??Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O?? Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tibolt, A.

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Ward, C. A

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wongkasem, N.

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Active and Passive Electronic Components (1)

J. F. O??Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, "Reduced conductivity in the terahertz skin-depth layer of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Median, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 7, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, "Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition" Phys. Rev. B 76, 125408 (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER (1)

N. Wongkasem, A. Akyurtlu, J. Li, A. Tibolt, Z. Kang, and W. D. Goodhue, "Novel broadband terahertz negative refractive index metamaterials: analysis and experiment," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 64, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukolis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. W. C. De Vries, "Temperature and thickness dependence of the resistivity of thin polycrystalline aluminum, cobalt, nickel, palladium, silver and gold films," Thin Solid Films 167, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

CST Microwave Studio ®, © 2008 CST - Computer Simulation Technology, Wellesley Hills, MA, USA, www.cst.com.

S. Ramo and J. R. Whinnery, Fields and waves in Modern Radio (Wiley, New York, 1953), Chap. 6, p. 239.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Transmitted terahertz pulses through the reference and Pb SRR metamaterials of different thicknesses. For clarity, the curves are shifted by 1.5 ps in time and 0.6 nA in average current. (b) Corresponding Fourier transformed spectra that illustrate the evolution of the resonances. The E-field of the terahertz pulses is perpendicular to the SRR gaps. The reference is shifted up by 0.05 for clarity. Inset: schematic diagram of the double SRRs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Frequency dependent amplitude transmission of the SRR metamaterials with various thicknesses of Pb film. (b) Corresponding simulation result by CST Microwave Studio.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Transmission minimum at the LC resonance as a function of the SRR thickness in skin depth. (b) Calculated effective resistance of the Pb SRR metamaterials as a function of the metal thickness by use of the equivalent ring model (Squares) and the Quality factor of the Pb metamaterials extracted from the measured transmission spectra as a function of thickness in skin depth (circles). The dotted curves are guides to the eye.

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