Abstract

The realization of plasmo-electronic integrated circuits in a silicon chip will be enabled by two new plasmonic materials that are proposed and modeled in this article. The first is ion-implanted Si (n-type or p-type) at the surface of an intrinsic Si chip. The second is a thin-layer silicide such as Pd2Si, NiSi, PtSi2 WSi2 or CoSi2 formed at the Si chip surface. For doping concentrations of 1020 cm-3 and 1021 cm-3, our dispersion calculations show that bound surface plasmon polaritons will propagate with low loss on stripe-shaped plasmonic waveguides over the 10 to 55 µm and 2.8 to 15 µm wavelength ranges, respectively. For Pd2Si/Si plasmonic waveguides, the wavelength range of 0.5 to 7.5 µm is useful and here the propagation lengths are 1 to 2300 µm. For both doped and silicided guides, the SPP mode field extends much more into the air above the stripe than it does into the conductive stripe material.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Soref, "The opto electronic integrated circuit," invited lead chapter in Silicon Photonics??State of the Art, G. T. Reed, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, to be published 2008).
  5. R. A. Soref, "Towards silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO)," paper 6898-5 (invited) SPIE Photonics West, San Jose, CA, 21 January 2008.
  6. S. J. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, "Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides," Opt. Express,  16, 2676-2684 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Raether, "Surface plasmon oscillations and their applications," in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, and R. W. Hoffman, eds. (Academic Press, NY, 1977).
  9. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985) Vol. 1.

2008

2006

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Amiotti, M.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, V. N.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bashevoy, M. V.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. J.

Chen, Y.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Höpfel, R. A.

S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, F.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

Krasavin, A. V.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marabelli, F.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piaggi, A.

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ross, C. E.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Wijngaarden, J. T.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vass, E.

S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. T. van Wijngaarden, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, C. E. Ross, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Direct imaging of propagation and damping of near-resonance surface plasmon polaritons using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. V. Bashevoy, F. Jonsson, A. V. Krasavin, N. I. Zheludev, Y. Chen, and M. I. Stockman, "Generation of traveling surface plasmon waves by free-electron impact," Nano Lett. 6, 1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

M. Amiotti, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, V. N. Antonov, Vl. N. Antonov, O. Jepson, O. K. Anderson, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. V. Nemoshkalenko, R. Madar, and A. Roualt, "Optical properties of Pd2Si," Phys. Rev. B 45, 13285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Fan, R. A. Höpfel, E. Vass, and E. Gornik, "Thermal excitation of two dimensional plasma oscillations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1667 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. Soref, "The opto electronic integrated circuit," invited lead chapter in Silicon Photonics??State of the Art, G. T. Reed, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, to be published 2008).

R. A. Soref, "Towards silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO)," paper 6898-5 (invited) SPIE Photonics West, San Jose, CA, 21 January 2008.

H. Raether, "Surface plasmon oscillations and their applications," in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, and R. W. Hoffman, eds. (Academic Press, NY, 1977).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985) Vol. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Silicon CMOS-compatible plasmonic channel waveguides utilizing ion-implanted Si and silicided Si.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Permittivities -ε′(ω) and ε″(ω)of doped-Si and Pd2Si compared with those of gold.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(left) SPP dispersion curves for doped silicon; (right) SPP dispersion curves for gold and Pd2Si.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SPP propagation length on doped Si, Pd2Si, and gold.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SPP field penetration lengths into the media on either side of the surface. (0.1 eV corresponds tothe 12.4 micron optical wavelength.)

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Predicted performance of Si-based plasmonic channel waveguides

Equations (2)

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ε ( ω ) = ε ( ω ) + ι ε ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 [ ω 2 ( 1 + ι ω τ ) ] ,
k = ( ω c ) [ ε ( ω ) ( 1 + ε ( ω ) ) ]

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