Abstract

The directional component of the retinal reflection, i.e., the optical Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE), is well established to result from the waveguiding property of photoreceptors. Considerable uncertainty, however, remains as to which retinal reflections are waveguided and thus contribute. To this end we have developed a retina camera based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) that axially resolves (~5 µm) these reflections and permits a direct investigation of the SCE origin at near infrared wavelengths. Reflections from the photoreceptor inner/outer segments junction (IS/OS) and near the posterior tip of the outer segments (PTOS) were found highly sensitive to beam entry position in the pupil with a considerable decrease in brightness occurring with an increase in aperture eccentricity. Reflections from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were largely insensitive. The average directionality (ρoct value) at 2 degree eccentricity across the four subjects for the IS/OS, PTOS, and RPE were 0.120, 0.270, and 0.016 mm-2, respectively. The directionality for the IS/OS approached typical psychophysical SCE measurements, while that for the PTOS approached conventional optical SCE measurements. Precise measurement of the optical SCE was found to require significant A-scan averaging.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

2006

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, and D. T. Miller, "Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  47, E-Abstract 2665 (2006).

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Letters 31, 1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. De Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 18-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone-photoreceptor directionality," Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, and A. Rothova, "Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 4048-4053 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999

1998

P. J. DeLint, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "A comparison of the optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 1519-1523 (1998).
[PubMed]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, and J. C. He, "Model for cone directionality reflectometric measurements based on scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15, 2012-2022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. J. DeLint, J. J. Vos, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "On the Stiles-Crawford effect with age," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1271-1274 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, "A model for assessment of cone directionality," J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

J. M. Gorrand and F. Delori, "A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment," Vision Res. 35, 999-1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, "Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329-2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Achromatizing the human eye: the problem of chromatic parallax," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 8, 686-691 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and K. R. Diddie, "Color matching and the Stiles-Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 2113-2121 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

G. J. Van Blokland and S. C. Verhelst, "Corneal polarization in the living human-eye explained with a biaxial model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 4, 82-90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, and J. M. Enoch, "Functional analysis of vision in patients after retinal detachment repair," Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237-1244 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and P. B. Johnston, "Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar," Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867-869 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "Relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment-epithelium," J. Ultrastruct. Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

A. B. Bonds and D. I. MacLeod, "A displaced Stiles-Crawford effect associated with an eccentric pupil," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17, 754-761 (1978).
[PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, and S. J. Starr, "Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192-199 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977

H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "Subjective method for measurement of monochromatic aberrations of eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 67, 1508-1518 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagocytosis of extra-foveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1974

D. V. Norren and J. J. Vos, "Spectral Transmission of Human Ocular Media," Vision Res. 14, 1237-1244 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

J. M. Enoch, J. A. Van Loo, Jr., and E. Okun, "Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849-853 (1973).
[PubMed]

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, "The Stiles-Crawford effect explanation and consequences," Vision Res. 13, 1115-1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

J. J. Vos and A. Huigen, "A clinical Stiles-Crawford apparatus," Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 39, 68-76 (1962).
[PubMed]

1961

F. Fankhauser, J. Enoch, and P. Cibis, "Receptor orientation in retinal pathology. A first study," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767-783 (1961).
[PubMed]

1949

G. T. D. Francia, "Retinal cones as dielectric antennas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1933

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 112, 428-450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P. K.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. H.

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "Relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment-epithelium," J. Ultrastruct. Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, E. M.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumann, B.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Letters 31, 1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T.

N. P. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone-photoreceptor directionality," Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. DeLint, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "A comparison of the optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 1519-1523 (1998).
[PubMed]

P. J. DeLint, J. J. Vos, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "On the Stiles-Crawford effect with age," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1271-1274 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 18-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birch, D. G.

C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, and J. M. Enoch, "Functional analysis of vision in patients after retinal detachment repair," Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237-1244 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonds, A. B.

A. B. Bonds and D. I. MacLeod, "A displaced Stiles-Crawford effect associated with an eccentric pupil," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17, 754-761 (1978).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Achromatizing the human eye: the problem of chromatic parallax," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 8, 686-691 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Cense, B.

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
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B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. De Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
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L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
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E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
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B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. De Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
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C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, and A. Rothova, "Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 4048-4053 (2000).
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J. M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, "A model for assessment of cone directionality," J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473-491 (1997).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
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V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and K. R. Diddie, "Color matching and the Stiles-Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 2113-2121 (1988).
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Doble, N.

Drexler, W.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
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Elsner, A. E.

Enoch, J.

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C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, and J. M. Enoch, "Functional analysis of vision in patients after retinal detachment repair," Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237-1244 (1980).
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V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, and S. J. Starr, "Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192-199 (1978).
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F. Fankhauser, J. Enoch, and P. Cibis, "Receptor orientation in retinal pathology. A first study," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 767-783 (1961).
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Fisher, S. K.

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C. R. Fitzgerald, D. G. Birch, and J. M. Enoch, "Functional analysis of vision in patients after retinal detachment repair," Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 1237-1244 (1980).
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W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
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W. Gao, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, and D. T. Miller, "Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  47, E-Abstract 2665 (2006).

Gloesmann, M.

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
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Goodman, J. W.

Gorrand, J. M.

J. M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, "A model for assessment of cone directionality," J. Mod. Opt. 44, 473-491 (1997).
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J. M. Gorrand and F. Delori, "A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment," Vision Res. 35, 999-1010 (1995).
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M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Letters 31, 1821-1823 (2006).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
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J. C. He, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Comparison of cone directionality determined by psychophysical and reflectometric techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2363-2369 (1999).
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E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
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M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Letters 31, 1821-1823 (2006).
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R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagocytosis of extra-foveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).
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L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
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H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "Subjective method for measurement of monochromatic aberrations of eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 67, 1508-1518 (1977).
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H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "Subjective method for measurement of monochromatic aberrations of eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 67, 1508-1518 (1977).
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Johnston, P. B.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and P. B. Johnston, "Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar," Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867-869 (1979).
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Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, and D. T. Miller, "Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  47, E-Abstract 2665 (2006).

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
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C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, and A. Rothova, "Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 4048-4053 (2000).
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Le, T.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, J.

MacLeod, D. I.

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Miller, D. T.

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

W. Gao, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, and D. T. Miller, "Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  47, E-Abstract 2665 (2006).

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
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Miller, J. W.

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
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Morgan, J. E.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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J. M. Enoch, J. A. Van Loo, Jr., and E. Okun, "Realignment of photoreceptors disturbed in orientation secondary to retinal detachment," Invest. Ophthalmol. 12, 849-853 (1973).
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Olivier, S.

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. De Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
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A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, "The Stiles-Crawford effect explanation and consequences," Vision Res. 13, 1115-1137 (1973).
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Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. De Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Letters 31, 1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and K. R. Diddie, "Color matching and the Stiles-Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 2113-2121 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and P. B. Johnston, "Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar," Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867-869 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, and S. J. Starr, "Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192-199 (1978).
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Pot, M. C.

N. P. Zagers, M. C. Pot, and D. van Norren, "Spectral and directional reflectance of the fovea in diabetes mellitus: photoreceptor integrity, macular pigment and lens," Vision Res. 45, 1745-1753 (2005).
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Probst, K.

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, and A. Rothova, "Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 4048-4053 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rha, J.

W. Gao, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, and D. T. Miller, "Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  47, E-Abstract 2665 (2006).

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J. T.

Rothova, A.

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, and A. Rothova, "Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 4048-4053 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rubin, P. A. D.

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, J. W. Miller, P. A. D. Rubin, D. G. Deschler, E. S. Gragoudas, and J. F. de Boer, "Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141, 1165-1168 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, C.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and K. R. Diddie, "Color matching and the Stiles-Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 2113-2121 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and P. B. Johnston, "Photoreceptor misalignment accompanying a fibrous scar," Arch. Ophthalmol. 97, 867-869 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, J. T. Ernest, and S. J. Starr, "Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 192-199 (1978).
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Snyder, A. W.

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P. J. DeLint, J. J. Vos, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "On the Stiles-Crawford effect with age," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1271-1274 (1997).
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Yun, S. H.

Zagers, N. P.

N. P. Zagers, M. C. Pot, and D. van Norren, "Spectral and directional reflectance of the fovea in diabetes mellitus: photoreceptor integrity, macular pigment and lens," Vision Res. 45, 1745-1753 (2005).
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N. P. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone-photoreceptor directionality," Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
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Zagers, N. P. A.

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 18-23 (2003).
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W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci

W. Gao, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, and D. T. Miller, "Measuring retinal contributions to the optical Stiles-Crawford effect with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  47, E-Abstract 2665 (2006).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

W. Gao, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Measurement of the Stiles-Crawford effect using optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, E-Abstract 3849 (2007).

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
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C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, and A. Rothova, "Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 4048-4053 (2000).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

G. J. Van Blokland and S. C. Verhelst, "Corneal polarization in the living human-eye explained with a biaxial model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 4, 82-90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and K. R. Diddie, "Color matching and the Stiles-Crawford effect in observers with early age-related macular changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 2113-2121 (1988).
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[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 112, 428-450 (1933).
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Vision Res.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, "The Stiles-Crawford effect explanation and consequences," Vision Res. 13, 1115-1137 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Zagers, M. C. Pot, and D. van Norren, "Spectral and directional reflectance of the fovea in diabetes mellitus: photoreceptor integrity, macular pigment and lens," Vision Res. 45, 1745-1753 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Gorrand and F. Delori, "A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment," Vision Res. 35, 999-1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(top) Conceptual layout of the adaptive optics SD-OCT instrument that was used to measure the retinal contributions to the optical SCE. (bottom) en face view of the eye’s pupil and the 13 sub-aperture positions along the geometrical horizontal and vertical meridians through which the retina was illuminated and imaged in a sequential fashion. Key: SLD (superluminecent diode), BS (fiber-based beam splitter), AO (adaptive optics sub-system), P (pellicle beamsplitter).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Representative A-scan of the retinal reflectance at 2 degree eccentricity. The A-scan was generated by averaging 510 A-scans. Location of labels are consistent with that widely reported in the OCT literature. Key: ILM (inner limiting membrane), IPL (inner plexiform layer), OPL (outer plexiform layer), ELM (external limiting membrane), IS/OS (inner segment/outer segment junction), PTOS (posterior tip of outer segment), and RPE (retinal pigment epithelium).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Averaged A-scans of the same proximal patch of retina, but with different beam entry positions along the vertical meridian. Entry positions are at 1 mm intervals and specified relative to the geometric pupil center. A-scans are normalized to the inner retina reflection (see text for details).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the normalized retinal reflectance on beam entry position in the pupils of four subjects (S1, S2, S3, and S4). Rectangles, triangles and circles denoted measured reflectance of the IS/OS, PTOS and RPE layers, respectively. Red, blue and black curves represent the best fit of the five parameter model to the measured reflectances. The ordinate is in linear intensity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Standard deviation over mean as a function of A-scans averaged. The asterisks indicate the experimental results and the solid curves represent fits of 1/√Neffective , where Neffective is defined as N divided by the correlation width. Correlation widths were found to be 1.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 5.2 µm, respectively, for the vitreous, GCL, PTOS, and RPE, yielding maximum Neffective values of 510, 102, 85, and 98. Although not shown, the standard deviation over mean was also determined for the IS/OS and found similar to that of the PTOS.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variability in reflectance of the PTOS layer of subject S2 depending on number of A-scans averaged. Error bars are superimposed on the Figure 4 (S2, PTOS) plot and represent the standard deviation in the reflectance for (left) single and (right) averaged (510) A-scans. The two cases have an average contrast (standard deviation/mean) of 1 and 0.13, respectively. Speckle at the PTOS layer is assumed fully developed and the dominate noise source in the SD-OCT A-scans.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

*Table 1. ρ values obtained from SD-OCT, two conventional reflectometers, and a psychophysical technique at 2 degree eccentricity. For SD-OCT, ρoct values are shown for three retinal layers (IS/OS, PTOS, and RPE) and four subjects (S1, S2, S3, and S4) as determined by fitting the five parameter model defined by Eq.(1) to the measured reflectance. ρoct is an average of the fits along the horizontal and vertical meridians. To facilitate comparison with directionality values in the literature, ρMarcos equiv and ρGorrand equiv are equivalent values that take into account wavelength and definition differences for the conventional reflectometer measurements in Marcos and Burns [33] and Gorrand and Delori [17]. ρpsycho is a measurement of the psychophysical SCE at 2 degree eccentricity [22, 33]. See Section 4 (Discussion) for details. All ρ’s are in units of mm-2.

Equations (1)

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R ( x ) = B + I * 10 ρ oct [ ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 ]

Metrics