Abstract

A new method of accurately measuring the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of few-cycle pulses is presented. The high-energy photoelectron spectrum by a few-cycle pulse is dominated by photoelectrons bursting in very few short time intervals near the maximum of the pulse envelope. For high laser intensities, the positions of interference fringes in the high-energy cutoff region are very sensitive to the CEP, which can be used to measure and stabilize the CEP precisely. The measurement precision of the CEP strongly depends on the laser intensity for the fastest photoelectrons.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Chelkowski and A. D. Bandrank, "Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima,"Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. B. Miloševi?, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "Ionization by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 061404(R) (2005).
  16. F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. G. Paulus, "A meter of the "absolute" phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Laser Phys. 15, 843-854 (2005).
  19. M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima,"Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Miloševi?, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "Ionization by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 061404(R) (2005).

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, "A meter of the "absolute" phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Laser Phys. 15, 843-854 (2005).

2004 (2)

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chelkowski and A. D. Bandrank, "Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltu?ka, A.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bandrank, A. D.

S. Chelkowski and A. D. Bandrank, "Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Miloševi?, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "Ionization by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 061404(R) (2005).

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruzzese, R.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, P.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelkowski, S.

S. Chelkowski and A. D. Bandrank, "Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silverstri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremina, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ergler, T.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fie?, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Galegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helml, W.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hino, K.

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima,"Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keeffe, K. O.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kre?, M.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miloševi?, D. B.

D. B. Miloševi?, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "Ionization by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 061404(R) (2005).

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascolini, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, "A meter of the "absolute" phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Laser Phys. 15, 843-854 (2005).

D. B. Miloševi?, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "Ionization by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 061404(R) (2005).

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rottke, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schätzel, M. G.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, M. D.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima,"Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toshima, N.

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima,"Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veisz, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Jr., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrödinger Equation by a Spectral Method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 221-232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

G. G. Paulus, "A meter of the "absolute" phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Laser Phys. 15, 843-854 (2005).

Nature (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

M. Kre?, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys. (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fie?, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New. J. Phys. 9, 242-253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

S. Chelkowski and A. D. Bandrank, "Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima,"Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Miloševi?, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "Ionization by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 71, 061404(R) (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltu?ka, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Miloševi?, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, "Attosecond double-slit experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, "Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494-2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order- Harmonic Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, "Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silverstri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronic," Science 317, 769- 775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Electric field (blue solid line) and envelope (cyan solid line) of a 800 nm four-cycle laser pulse with an intensity of I=2×1015 W/cm2 for the CEPs 0 (left panel) and π/2 (right panel). The drift momentum of high-energy photoelectrons as a function of the ionization time t 0 is shown in black (emission to the left, negative direction along the x axis) and red (emission to the right, positive direction along the x axis) dotted lines, calculated with a classical model. The ionization probability (green dotted line) is also given by the quasistatic tunneling rate with arb. units as a function of t 0 when the rescattering photoelectrons are ionized. The photoelectrons ionized in the time intervals labeled with 1 and 2 would dominate the high-energy parts of respective spectra.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

High-energy photoelectron spectra (log scale) of He as a function of the CEP, calculated with the same laser parameters as in Fig. 1. Left panel for photoelectrons emitted to the left and right panel for photoelectrons emitted to the right. Both panels show the same information because a phase shift of π mirrors the pulse field in space and thus only reverses the roles of the left and right.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

High-energy photoelectron spectra (log scale) of He as a function of the CEP, calculated with the same laser parameters as in Fig. 2 except for the total duration of the few-cycle pulse, which is three cycles. Left panel for photoelectrons emitted to the left and right panel for photoelectron emitted to the right.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Higher-energy parts of photoelectron spectra from left panel of Fig. 2 for different CEPs. The black, green, blue and red lines correspond to: panels (a) φ=0, 0.005π, 0.01π, 0.015π; panels (b) φ=0.5π, 0.505π, 0.51π, 0.515π; panels (c) φ=0.9π, 0.905π, 0.91π, 0.915π, respectively. The spectra in right panels are enlarged forms of the spectra near cutoff energies in respective left panels.

Equations (2)

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i Ψ I ( x , t ) t = ( p 2 2 + pA ( t ) + V ( x ) ) Ψ I ( x , t ) ,
i Ψ II ( p , t ) t = ( p 2 2 + pA ( t ) ) Ψ II ( p , t ) ,

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