Abstract

We developed a monolithic sensing plate for a waveguide-mode sensor. The plate consists of a SiO2 glass substrate and a thin silicon layer the surface of which is thermally oxidized to form a SiO2 glass waveguide. We confirmed that the sensing plate is suitable for high-sensitivity detection of molecular adsorption at the waveguide surface. In addition, a significant enhancement of the sensitivity of the sensor was achieved by perforating the waveguide with holes with diameters of a few tens of nanometers by selective etching of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion irradiation. Possible strategies for optimizing the plate are discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Knoll, "Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves," MRS Bulletin 16, 29??39 (1991).
  2. W. Knoll, "Interfaces and thin films as seen by bound electromagnetic waves," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 569??638 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, "Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2310??2312 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Physik 241, 313??324 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).
  10. T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Y. Tong, U. Gösele, T. Martini, and M. Reiche, "Ultrathin single-crystalline silicon on quartz (SOQ) by 150°C wafer bonding," Sensor. Actuat. A 48, 117??123 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, "General relationship for the thermal oxidation of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3770??3778 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Musket, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. J. Contolini, and J. D. Porter, "Vapor etching of ion tracks in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5760??5764 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. D. Palik (Ed.), Handbook of optical constants of solids I, II, & III (Academic Press, San Diego, 1998).
  17. A. S. Grove, Physics and technology of semiconductor devices (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, London, Sydney, 1967).
  18. S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. G. Musket, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. J. Contolini, and J. D. Porter, "Vapor etching of ion tracks in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5760??5764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Knoll, "Interfaces and thin films as seen by bound electromagnetic waves," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 569??638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

Q. Y. Tong, U. Gösele, T. Martini, and M. Reiche, "Ultrathin single-crystalline silicon on quartz (SOQ) by 150°C wafer bonding," Sensor. Actuat. A 48, 117??123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, "Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2310??2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. Knoll, "Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves," MRS Bulletin 16, 29??39 (1991).

1971

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Physik 241, 313??324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965

B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, "General relationship for the thermal oxidation of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3770??3778 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Brebner, J. L.

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Busse, S.

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contolini, R. J.

R. G. Musket, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. J. Contolini, and J. D. Porter, "Vapor etching of ion tracks in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5760??5764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deal, B. E.

B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, "General relationship for the thermal oxidation of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3770??3778 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Feger, C.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, "Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2310??2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, "Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2310??2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujimaki, M.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Fukuda, N.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Gösele, U.

Q. Y. Tong, U. Gösele, T. Martini, and M. Reiche, "Ultrathin single-crystalline silicon on quartz (SOQ) by 150°C wafer bonding," Sensor. Actuat. A 48, 117??123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grove, A. S.

B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, "General relationship for the thermal oxidation of silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3770??3778 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, S.

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knoll, "Interfaces and thin films as seen by bound electromagnetic waves," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 569??638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Knoll, "Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves," MRS Bulletin 16, 29??39 (1991).

Koganezawa, Y.

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Komatsubara, T.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Physik 241, 313??324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. H. A.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martini, T.

Q. Y. Tong, U. Gösele, T. Martini, and M. Reiche, "Ultrathin single-crystalline silicon on quartz (SOQ) by 150°C wafer bonding," Sensor. Actuat. A 48, 117??123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Menges, B.

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitteler, S.

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morrill, S.

R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Musket, R. G.

R. G. Musket, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. J. Contolini, and J. D. Porter, "Vapor etching of ion tracks in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5760??5764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakazato, Y.

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, K.

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, K.

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, Y.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Osterfeld, M.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, "Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2310??2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Podgorsek, R. P.

R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J. D.

R. G. Musket, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. J. Contolini, and J. D. Porter, "Vapor etching of ion tracks in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5760??5764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, M.

Q. Y. Tong, U. Gösele, T. Martini, and M. Reiche, "Ultrathin single-crystalline silicon on quartz (SOQ) by 150°C wafer bonding," Sensor. Actuat. A 48, 117??123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Roorda, S.

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sander, M. S.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scheumann, V.

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shima, K.

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sunagawa, K.

T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, K.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, J.

K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda, and Y. Ohki, "High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 2592??2597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Tong, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Tong, U. Gösele, T. Martini, and M. Reiche, "Ultrathin single-crystalline silicon on quartz (SOQ) by 150°C wafer bonding," Sensor. Actuat. A 48, 117??123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, A.

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, "Design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors," Nanotechnology (to be published).

Woods, J.

R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiyama, J. M.

R. G. Musket, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. J. Contolini, and J. D. Porter, "Vapor etching of ion tracks in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5760??5764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, K.

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Biosens. Bioelectron.

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges, and S. Mitteler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 704??710 (2002).
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K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, "Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10812??10818 (2004).
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T. Abe, K. Sunagawa, A. Uchiyama, K. Yoshizawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Fabrication and bonding strength of bonded silicon-quartz wafers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 334??337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Abe, K. Ohki, A. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, and Y. Nakazato, "Dislocation-free silicon on sapphire by wafer bonding," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 514??518 (1994).
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Microelectron. Eng.

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, T. Ikeda, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, "Nanoscale pore fabrication for high sensitivity waveguide-mode biosensors," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1685??1689 (2007).
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Nanotechnology

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Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda, and J. L. Brebner, "Structure of latent tracks created by swift heavy-ion bombardment of amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 62, 3689??3698 (2000).
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R. P. Podgorsek, H. Franke, J. Woods, and S. Morrill, "Monitoring the diffusion of vapour molecules in polymer films using SP-leaky-mode spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 51, 146??151 (1998).
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Z. Physik

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Other

E. D. Palik (Ed.), Handbook of optical constants of solids I, II, & III (Academic Press, San Diego, 1998).

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