Abstract

We present first experimental results of our investigation of non-collinear high harmonic generation (NCHHG) with a chirped pulse amplification system. Collimated high harmonic radiation of higher than 9th order is observed along the bisector of two fundamental beams crossing in a xenon gas target. The obtained results show that cavity-assisted non-collinear high harmonic generation is a promising candidate for efficient generation and outcoupling of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416,233-237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, "Narrow resonances of two-photon absorption of super-narrow pulses in a gas," Appl. Phys. B 12, 97-99 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Fendel, S. D. Bergeson, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of the 6s-8s transition in cesium," Opt. Lett. 32, 701-703 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
    [PubMed]
  7. I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, "Cavityenhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3?1014W/cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz," Opt. Lett. 32, 2870-2872 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and Jun Ye, "Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities," Opt. Express 13, 1672-1678 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. C. Yost, S. R. Schibli, and Jun Ye, "Efficient output coupling of intracavity high harmonic generation," arXiv:0803.2672v1 (2008).
  10. K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation," Opt. Express 14, 8189-8197 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Wu and H. Zeng, "Cavity-enhanced noncollinear high-harmonicgeneration for extreme ultraviolet frequency combs," Opt. Lett. 32, 3315-3317 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).
  13. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and Jun Ye, "Nonlinear dynamics inside femtosecond enhancement cavities," Opt. Express 13, 1672-1678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416,233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, "Narrow resonances of two-photon absorption of super-narrow pulses in a gas," Appl. Phys. B 12, 97-99 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Apolonski, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergeson, S. D.

Breger, P.

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Carre, B.

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fendel, P.

Fermann, M. E.

Fernandez, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Fomichev, S. V.

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

P. Fendel, S. D. Bergeson, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of the 6s-8s transition in cesium," Opt. Lett. 32, 701-703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416,233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Herrmann, M.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416,233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Hudson, D. D.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

Krausz, F.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

L??Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Moll, K. D.

Ozawa, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Pervak, V.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

P. Fendel, S. D. Bergeson, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of the 6s-8s transition in cesium," Opt. Lett. 32, 701-703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416,233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Walker, D. R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

Wu, J.

Ye, J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

Zaretski, D. F.

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Zeng, H.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Ye. F. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotayev, "Narrow resonances of two-photon absorption of super-narrow pulses in a gas," Appl. Phys. B 12, 97-99 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

S. V. Fomichev, P. Breger, B. Carre, P. Agostini, and D. F. Zaretski, "Non-collinear high harmonic generation," Laser Phys. 12, 383-388 (2002).

Nature (2)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416,233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, "Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, and Th. Udem, "High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy," submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
[PubMed]

D. C. Yost, S. R. Schibli, and Jun Ye, "Efficient output coupling of intracavity high harmonic generation," arXiv:0803.2672v1 (2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup: BS, beamsplitter; DS, delay stage; PAM, piezo-actuated mirror; MW, moveable wedge plate

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two-dimensional beam profiles of high harmonics obtained with a CCD camera. Top, bottom: Collinear high harmonics observed with only one driving beam, respectively. Center: non-collinear high harmonics observed with both fundamental beams open. Note that the collinear harmonics vanish in that case.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Horizontal beam profiles of collinear (dashed/green, dotted/green) and non-collinear high harmonics (thick solid/blue) obtained from vertical integration of the recorded images. The non-collinear angle is set to 30 mrad. To illustrate the potential as an outcoupling method, the estimated beam profiles of the fundamental infrared beams are also shown (thin solid/red). (b) Same as (a) for a larger non-collinear angle (45 mrad). The same intensity scale is used for both (a) and (b). Note that for this angle, the intensity ratio between collinear and non-collinear high harmonics stays similar.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Possible configuration of non-collinear high harmoncis generation in an enhancement cavity. With a small outcoupling hole between the folding mirrors (inset), the generated XUV beam can be efficiently outcoupled without introducing any additional material into the cavity (see also [10]).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Estimation of intracavity loss as a function of outcoupling efficiency for noncollinear angles of 30 mrad (solid (blue)) and 45 mrad (dashed (red)). Here, the outcoupling efficiency is defined as the power-ratio between the outcoupled XUV and the collinear harmonics.

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