Abstract

We introduce a new multi aperture system capable of capturing six identical images of the human fundus at six different spectral bands. The system is based on a lenslet array architecture and is well suited for spectroscopy application. The multi-aperture system was interfaced with a fundus camera to acquire spectroscopic sensitive images of the retina vessel and ultimately to calculate oxygen saturation in the retina in vivo. In vitro testing showed that the system is able to accurately reconstruct curves of partially oxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo testing on healthy volunteers was conducted and yielded results of oxygen saturation similar to the one reported in the literature, with arterial SO2~0.95 and venous SO2~0.5.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).
  4. A. Lompado, A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for retinal vessel oximetry, PhD Thesis, University of Alabama, Huntsville (1999).
  5. E. M. Kohner, V. Patel, and S. M. Rassam, "Role of blood flow and impaired autoregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy," Diabetes 44, 603-607 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, "Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects," Arch Ophthalmol. 121, 547-557 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, "A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means," Circulation 27, 375-385 (1963).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).
  16. M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. J. Preece and E. Claridge, "Monte Carlo modeling of the spectral reflectance of the human eye," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2863-2877 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. A. Nabili, S. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman "Calibration of a retinal oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom," Proc. SPIE (in preparation, 2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
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  25. G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Nabili, S. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman "Calibration of a retinal oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom," Proc. SPIE (in preparation, 2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, "Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects," Arch Ophthalmol. 121, 547-557 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).

2002

S. J. Preece and E. Claridge, "Monte Carlo modeling of the spectral reflectance of the human eye," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2863-2877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Smith, "Optimum wavelength combinations for retina vessel oximetry," Appl. Opt. 38, 258-267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

E. M. Kohner, V. Patel, and S. M. Rassam, "Role of blood flow and impaired autoregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy," Diabetes 44, 603-607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1987

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, "Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656-664 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. N. Pittman and B. R. Duling, "A new method for the measurement of percent hemoglobin," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 315-320 (1975).

1965

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Computer J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

1963

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, "A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means," Circulation 27, 375-385 (1963).
[PubMed]

Appel, P. L.

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bearman, G.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, M. H.

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campochiaro, P. A.

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claridge, E.

S. J. Preece and E. Claridge, "Monte Carlo modeling of the spectral reflectance of the human eye," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2863-2877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Denninghoff, K. R.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).

J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinn, L.

A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).

Drewes, J. J.

J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duling, B. R.

R. N. Pittman and B. R. Duling, "A new method for the measurement of percent hemoglobin," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 315-320 (1975).

Fink, W.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frayser, R.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, "A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means," Circulation 27, 375-385 (1963).
[PubMed]

Graham, M. D.

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, "Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656-664 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardin, E.

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, A.

A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).

Hickam, J. B.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, "A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means," Circulation 27, 375-385 (1963).
[PubMed]

Hillman, L. W.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).

J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, C. E.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humayun, M.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jester, P. M.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, W. R.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagemann, R. B.

A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).

Koenigsdoerffer, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kohner, E. M.

E. M. Kohner, V. Patel, and S. M. Rassam, "Role of blood flow and impaired autoregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy," Diabetes 44, 603-607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kram, H. B.

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, F.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, "Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects," Arch Ophthalmol. 121, 547-557 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lompado, A.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).

Mathews, S.

A. Nabili, S. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman "Calibration of a retinal oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom," Proc. SPIE (in preparation, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Computer J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Muller, G.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabili, A.

A. Nabili, S. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman "Calibration of a retinal oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom," Proc. SPIE (in preparation, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Computer J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Nguyen, Q. D.

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patel, V.

E. M. Kohner, V. Patel, and S. M. Rassam, "Role of blood flow and impaired autoregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy," Diabetes 44, 603-607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, R. N.

R. N. Pittman and B. R. Duling, "A new method for the measurement of percent hemoglobin," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 315-320 (1975).

Preece, S. J.

S. J. Preece and E. Claridge, "Monte Carlo modeling of the spectral reflectance of the human eye," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2863-2877 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

A. Nabili, S. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman "Calibration of a retinal oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom," Proc. SPIE (in preparation, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Rassam, S. M.

E. M. Kohner, V. Patel, and S. M. Rassam, "Role of blood flow and impaired autoregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy," Diabetes 44, 603-607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rechtman, E.

A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).

Roggan, A.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, J. C.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, "A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means," Circulation 27, 375-385 (1963).
[PubMed]

Rue, L. W.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzrt, D.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, S. M.

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, W. C.

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M.

Smith, M. H.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).

J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
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G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strobel, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takatani, S.

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, "Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656-664 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thamm, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Anden, E.

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vitale, S.

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wangsa-Wirawan, N. D.

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, "Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects," Arch Ophthalmol. 121, 547-557 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. W.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch Ophthalmol.

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, "Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects," Arch Ophthalmol. 121, 547-557 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, "A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means," Circulation 27, 375-385 (1963).
[PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Computer J.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Computer J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Crit. Care Med.

J. C. Wo, W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, M. H. Bishop, H. B. Kram, and E. Hardin, "Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness," Crit. Care Med. 21, 218-223 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes

E. M. Kohner, V. Patel, and S. M. Rassam, "Role of blood flow and impaired autoregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy," Diabetes 44, 603-607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

S. Takatani and M. D. Graham, "Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656-664 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci.

Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, E. van Anden, J. U. Sung, S. Vitale, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Supplemental oxygen improves diabetic macular edema: a pilot study," Invest. Opthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 617-624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, "Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 891-896 (2003).

R. N. Pittman and B. R. Duling, "A new method for the measurement of percent hemoglobin," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 315-320 (1975).

J. Biomed. Opt.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 14036-14043 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, and R. A. Chipman, "Oxygen Saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trauma.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, "Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine," J. Trauma. 43, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging

A. Harris, L. Dinn, R. B. Kagemann, and E. Rechtman, "A review ofmethods for human retinal oximetry," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 34, 152-164 (2003).

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzrt, and G. Muller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues - an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-78 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Koenigsdoerffer, and J. Strobel, "Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessel of men," Proc. SPIE 2393, 210-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, and L. W. Hillman, "An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 114-120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Nabili, S. Mathews, and J. C. Ramella-Roman "Calibration of a retinal oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom," Proc. SPIE (in preparation, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. M. Sarna, "The physical properties of melanins," in The Pigmentary System, R. E. Nordlund, V. J. Hearing, R. A. King and J. P. Ortonne, eds., (Oxford University Press, 1998), pp 439-450.

J. J. Drewes, Four-wavelength retinal vessel oximetry, PhD Thesis University of Alabama Huntsville.

A. Lompado, A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for retinal vessel oximetry, PhD Thesis, University of Alabama, Huntsville (1999).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental layout

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Image division of a 2×3 lenslet array

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calibration of the multi aperture camera using three different colors Spectralon standards. The dashed line (--) are the reflectance values for the green standard while green symbols are the experimentally obtained reflectance values. The solid line corresponds to the red calibrated values and the red symbols are the experimental data. Finally the (-.-) line corresponds to the calibrated yellow standard values and the yellow symbols correspond to the corresponding experimental results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental layout for the transmission mode experiment. A 1 mm cuvette filled with an hemoglobin and water mixture is located at the exit pupil of the fundus ophthalmoscope. Images of light transmittance through the cuvette are acquired with the multi aperture camera

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission through a cuvette containing a mixture of water and hemoglobin. The solid line corresponds to the theoretical model of equation 2 obtained using tabulated values of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. The x symbols are the experimental results obtained with a spectrophotometer and the circles (o) are the average pixel values obtained using the multiaperture camera.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The eye model. A Teflon micro tube is used to model the retina vessel. A micro pump is used to re-circulate the blood through the eye

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated oxygen saturation value obtained with the multi aperture camera are compared to values obtained with a spectrophotometer. Black symbols were calculated with Schweitzer model while open circles were obtained using the Delori model. Square symbols correspond to the transmission experiment and circles are for the reflection experiment.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Registered images of IEEE target. The registration of the images is done manually by choosing 6 common region of interest on the 6 images.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Monte Carlo simulation showing the effect of an increase in melanin concentration in the choroid (bottom graph), and RPE (top graph), on the total absorption spectrum of the retina.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Melanin reduction scheme applied to a scenario where melanin varies only in the choroids (left hand side) and when melanin is varied only in the RPE.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Fundus images acquired with the multi-aperture system

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

D image of the retina of one volunteer, the insert shows the calculated value of oxygen saturation on a large vessel. The white lines correspond to region of interest on the vessel and in its proximity. Each value on the vessel was normalized by the corresponding value near the vessel. Values were obtained with triplet 540 nm, 560 nm, and 580 nm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( x , y , λ ) = 80 · R color ( x , y , λ ) dark R white ( x , y , λ ) dark
T = A · exp { [ s · μ aOxy ( 1 s ) · μ aDeOxy ] · L }
SO 2 = 100 · ( ε HB λ 1 ε HB λ 2 ) + ( ε HB λ 3 ε HB λ 1 ) . RP [ ( Δ λ 2 Δ λ 1 ) + ( Δ λ 1 Δ λ 3 ) . RP ]
D ( λ ) = B + n · log ( 1 λ ) + b · [ ε Hb ( λ ) + s · ( ε HbO 2 ( λ ) ε Hb ( λ ) ) ] · c tot · l
D ( λ ) = log 10 ( R vessel ( x , y , λ ) R background ( x , y , λ ) )

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