Abstract

We propose a modified method of acquisition and analysis of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) data to provide information about flow velocities. The idea behind this method is to acquire a set of SOCT spectral fringes dependent on time followed by a numerical analysis using two independent Fourier transformations performed in time and optical frequency domains. Therefore, we propose calling this method as joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (joint STdOCT). The flow velocities obtained by joint STdOCT are compared with the ones obtained by known, phase-resolved SOCT. We observe that STdOCT estimation is more robust for measurements with low signal to noise ratio (SNR) as well as in conditions of close-to-limit velocity measurements. We also demonstrate that velocity measurement performed with STdOCT method is more sensitive than the one obtained by the phase-resolved SOCT. The method is applied to biomedical imaging, in particular to in vivo measurements of retinal blood circulation. The applicability of STdOCT different measurement modes for in vivo examinations, including 1, 5 and 40 µs of CCD exposure time, is discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007

2006

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Simultaneous BM-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 1861-1865 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rothenberg, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Non-invasive investigations of early embryonic cardiac blood flow with optical coherence tomography," FASEB J. 20, A451-A451 (2006).

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 14, 7821-7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

2002

2000

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, G.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

Blatter, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Carvalho, M.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

Davis, A. M.

F. Rothenberg, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Non-invasive investigations of early embryonic cardiac blood flow with optical coherence tomography," FASEB J. 20, A451-A451 (2006).

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellerbee, A. K.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

F. Rothenberg, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Non-invasive investigations of early embryonic cardiac blood flow with optical coherence tomography," FASEB J. 20, A451-A451 (2006).

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, "Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound," Opt. Express 13, 410-416 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kulkami, M. D.

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Milner, T. E.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothenberg, F.

F. Rothenberg, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Non-invasive investigations of early embryonic cardiac blood flow with optical coherence tomography," FASEB J. 20, A451-A451 (2006).

Sarunic, M. V.

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B.

Villiger, M. L.

Wang, R. K.

Welch, A. J.

White, B. R.

Witkin, A. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt.

FASEB J.

F. Rothenberg, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Non-invasive investigations of early embryonic cardiac blood flow with optical coherence tomography," FASEB J. 20, A451-A451 (2006).

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, A. J. Witkin, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, M. Carvalho, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-definifion and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 2054-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 14, 7821-7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, "Three dimensional optical angiography," Opt. Express 15, 4083-4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, "Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound," Opt. Express 13, 410-416 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 22, 64-66 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
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Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
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Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Other

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Joint Spectral and Time domain OCT analysis of a mirror moving with constant velocity; individual images are linked via one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Fourier forward and inverse transformations (FT and IFT, respectively). The amplitudes of Fourier transforms are plotted in log scale on panels (b), (c) and (d); a. 2D interferogram consisting of 25 spectra recorded in time increments Δt=40µs; b. structural image: reconstruction of the axial mirror position; c. velocity image: Doppler shift for each k is retrieved; d. combined structural and velocity image representing the Doppler shift distribution in depth; red rectangle indicates the resulting point that simultaneously localizes moving mirror and its velocity; e. single line from structural panel, maximum of the peak correspond to the axial position of the mirror: 0.14mm; f. single line from velocity panel, maximum of the peak correspond to the mirror velocity: 14.2 kHz, 0.95mm/s.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase distributions for various values of κzt parameter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The probability density functions of amplitude for different value of parameter κ. Black and red curve correspond to the distributions of amplitude of pure noise (κ=0) and amplitude of signal for critical value of (κ=7) that assure correct recovery of velocity in STdOCT.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Computer simulations of velocity estimations obtained with STdOCT and phase-resolved SOCT for two different velocities (0.35vmax and 0.75 vmax – solid and dashed curve, respectively) under the conditions of decreasing SNR.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Computer simulations of velocity recovery using phase-resolved method. a. Retrieved velocity values versus SNR for different assumed values of velocity. b. Retrieved velocity versus assumed values vreal and corresponding phase difference distributions for v=0.73vmax.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental Spectral OCT system : OI optical isolator, FC fiber coupler, PC polarization controller, DC dispersion compensator, NDF neutral density filter, X galvo-scanner, L1 lens, DG volume phase holographic grating, CCD line-scan camera. Three different objects are measured: moving mirror, capillary flow, blood flow in human retina.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental and theoretical comparison of velocity estimations obtained with STdOCT and phase-resolved SOCT a, b. velocity readings for fixed velocities equal to 0,75 vmax and 0.35 vmax, respectively, under the conditions of decreasing SNR; c. velocity readings in whole theoretical velocity range for fixed SNR=17.5 dB.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Bidirectional flow of Intralipid: a. 2D structural tomogram; arrow indicates the direction of incident light b. 2D velocity map, c. Doppler shift distribution in depth calculated from the single set of 40 spectra corresponding to the green vertical line on panel (b). d. distribution of maximal intensity signals retrieved from panel (c); e. plot of the transverse distribution of velocity corresponding to the green horizontal line on panel (b).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Velocity measurements of Intralipid flow in capillaries for different flow rates and concentration of the scattering medium. Each panel consists of 4 images: i. structural tomogram of the inside of capillary; arrow indicates the direction of light and green line marks the position of 1D velocity distributions presented on the last image in the row, ii., iii. velocity maps reconstructed by phase-resolved SOCT and STdOCT, respectively, iv. comparison of 1D velocity distributions retrieved from both velocity maps: green — phase-resolved, red – STdOCT; arrow indicates the direction of light; a. high concentration of Intralipid, flow velocity set to be 0.75 vmax, b. lower concentration of Intralipid, flow velocity slightly higher than vmax, c. high concentration of Intralipid and flow velocity reaches the upper limit, vmax.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measurement of blood flow velocity in human retina in the region of optic disc; a. cross-sectional image of the retina performed in close proximity to optic disc, b., c. velocity maps based on phase-resolved SOCT and STdOCT methods respectively.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of two velocity estimations: green points indicate phaseresolved SOCT and the red one STdOCT. Diagrams are based on information extracted from data presented in Fig. 10 (green lines).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Velocity estimation of retinal blood flow with extremely short CCD exposure time: 5 µs and 1 µs for top and bottom line, respectively; ellipses mark blood vessels a., d. cross-sectional images of human retina in the area of optic disc; maps of the velocity distribution: b., e. Phase-resolved SOCT method, c., f. Joint STdOCT method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Signal amplitude skt and the noise standard deviation σα after one- and two-dimensional Fourier transformation; N, M – number of points in the first and the second FT, respectively.

Equations (22)

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I ( k , t ) = I 0 ( k ) ( l R l + R r + 2 l R l R r cos ( 2 z l ( t ) · k ) ) ,
z l ( t ) = z l + δ z ( t ) = z l + v l · t
v l = V l cos α v r
I ( k , t ) = I 0 ( k ) ( l R l + R r + 2 l R l R r cos ( 2 ( z l + δ z ( t ) ) · k ) )
I ( k , t ) = I 0 ( k ) ( l R l + R r + 2 l R l R r cos ( 2 z l · k + ω l · t ) )
ω l = 2 v l k
v l = Δ Φ 2 k Δ t = λ 4 Δ t Δ Φ π .
v ± max = ± λ 4 Δ t ,
v ± min = λ 4 Δ t Δ Φ min π .
z ± max = ± π 2 Δ k
v ± max = ± π 2 k Δ t
I ( k , t ) S + X
S = s kt cos ( ω z k ) .
X = n N α n cos ( Φ n ) ,
X = 1 2 π σ kt 2 exp [ x 2 2 σ kt 2 ] .
σ α 2 = σ kt 2 2 N .
s kt = 2 N s zt = 2 NM s ω z ,
σ kt 2 = σ Re 2 + σ Im 2 2 σ zt 2 2 σ ω z 2 2 σ 2 .
κ = s kt σ α ,
SNR = 20 log s zt σ = 20 log κ zt ,
p ( Φ ) = { e κ zt 2 2 2 π + κ zt cos Φ 2 π exp [ κ zt 2 sin 2 Φ 2 ] Ω ( κ zt cos Φ ) π < Φ π 0 otherwise ,
p ( a ) = { a σ 2 exp [ a 2 + s 2 2 σ 2 ] I 0 ( as σ 2 ) a > 0 0 otherwise ,

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