Abstract

A 29 W CW supercontinuum spanning from 1.06 to 1.67 µm is generated in a short length of PCF with two zero dispersion wavelengths. The continuum has the highest spectral power density, greater than 50 mW/nm up to 1.4 µm, reported to date. The use of a short length of PCF enables the continuum to expand beyond the water loss at 1.4 µm. The dynamics of the continuum evolution are studied experimentally and numerically with close attention given to the effects of the water loss and the second zero dispersion wavelength.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008

2007

2006

B. Barviau, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, "Spectral broadening of a multimode continuous-wave optical field propagating in the normal dispersion regime of a fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1696-1698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, and B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells," Opt. Express 14, 9576-9583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Yakovlenko, "Mechanism for the void formation in the bright spot of a fiber fuse," Laser Physics 16, 474-476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Sylvestre, A. Vedadi, H. Maillotte, F. Vanholsbeeck, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation using continuous-wave multiwavelength pumping and dispersion management," Opt. Lett. 31, 2036-2038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 5715-5722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, "Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 91-93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. S. J. Russell, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 um in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, "Soliton collision and Raman gain regimes in continuous-wave pumped supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 9391-9407 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

2000

M. Midrio, M. P. Singh, and C. G. Someda, "The space filling mode of holey fibers: An analytical vectorial solution," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1031-1037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Kamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, "1Tbit/s (100 Gbit/sx10 channel) OTDM/WDM transmission using a single supercontinuum WDM source," Electron. Lett. 32, 906-907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Temporal and noise characteristics of continuous-wave-pumped continuum generation in holey fibers around 1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2706-2708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E

B. H. Park, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, "The optimum fusion splicing conditions for a large mode area photonic crystal fiber," IEICE T ElectronE 88-C, 883-888 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Kamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, "1Tbit/s (100 Gbit/sx10 channel) OTDM/WDM transmission using a single supercontinuum WDM source," Electron. Lett. 32, 906-907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, "Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 91-93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Physics

S. I. Yakovlenko, "Mechanism for the void formation in the bright spot of a fiber fuse," Laser Physics 16, 474-476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Ere-Tassou, C. Przygodzki, E. Fertein, and H. Delbarre, "Femtosecond laser source for real-time atmospheric gas sensing in the UV-visible," Opt. Commun. 220, 215-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

P. L. Hsiung, Y. Chen, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Optical coherence tomography using a continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum light source," Opt. Express 12, 5287-5295 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 5715-5722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, "Visibly "white" light generation in uniform photonic crystal fiber using a microchip laser," Opt. Express 16, 2670-2675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. S. J. Russell, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 um in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, "Soliton collision and Raman gain regimes in continuous-wave pumped supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 9391-9407 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mussot, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, C. Finot, and S. Pitois, "Spectral broadening of a partially coherent CW laser beam in single-mode optical fibers," Opt. Express 12, 2838-2843 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zintzen, T. Langer, J. Geiger, D. Hoffmann, and P. Loosen, "Heat transport in solid and air-clad fibers for high-power fiber lasers," Opt. Express 15, 16787-16793 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martin-Lopez, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, and B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells," Opt. Express 14, 9576-9583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mussot, M. Beaugeois, M. Bouazaoui, and T. Sylvestre, "Tailoring CW supercontinuum generation in microstructured fibers with two-zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 11553-11563 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

J. C. Travers, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, H. Sabert, and B. Mangan, "Extended continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in-a-low-water-loss holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1938-1940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single-mode fibers by repeated arc discharges," Opt. Lett. 32, 115-117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Barviau, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, "Spectral broadening of a multimode continuous-wave optical field propagating in the normal dispersion regime of a fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1696-1698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and C. G. Jorgensen, "High-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers by use of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2163-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sylvestre, A. Vedadi, H. Maillotte, F. Vanholsbeeck, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation using continuous-wave multiwavelength pumping and dispersion management," Opt. Lett. 31, 2036-2038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Owen, E. Auksorius, H. B. Manning, C. B. Talbot, P. A. A. de Beule, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, "Excitation-resolved hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging using a UV-extended supercontinuum source," Opt. Lett. 32, 3408-3410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, "Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "1.5-2µm, multi-Watt white-light generation in CW format in highly-nonlinear fibres," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2004), TuA6.

G. P. Agrawal, in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The calculated dispersion curve (solid line) and experimental measurements (circles) (b) The calculated nonlinearity. Inset an SEM of the fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Supercontinuum generated by 44 W launched into the PCF on a log scale (a) and a linear scale (b)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Modulation instability sidebands at 1.1 W (red dashed), 1.3 W (green solid) and 1.9 W (blue dot). (b) Evolution of output power (squares) and bandwidth (circles) with pump power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Average soliton duration with wavelength for two sets of measurements (circles and squares) along with a numerical autocorrelation of a single shot of the simulation (triangles) (b) Experimental and numerical continuum results, normalized.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrogram from a single shot numerical simulation for 20 m of PCF and P0 =44 W

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Experimental measurement of continuum evolution via a cutback of the PCF (b) Numerical simulation of continuum evolution with length of PCF

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