Abstract

We present measurements of the optical properties of six different fat emulsions from three different brands, Clinoleic, Lipovenoes and Intralipid, with fat concentrations from 10% to 30%. The scattering coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficent, and the phase function of each sample are measured for wavelengths between 350nm and 900 nm. A method for the calculation of the particle size distribution of these fat emulsions is introduced. With the particle size distribution the optical properties of the fat emulsions are obtained with Mie theory. Simple equations for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficient, the g factor, and the phase function of all measured samples are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Kienle, F. Forster, and R. Hibst, "Influence of the phase function on determination of the optical properties of biological tissue by spatially resolved reflectance," Opt. Lett. 26, 1571-1573 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, "Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method," Opt. Express 15, 486-500 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Allardice, A. M. Abulafi, D. Webb, and N. Willimas, "Standardization of intralipid for light scattering in clinical photodynamic therapy," Lasers Med. Sci. 7, 461-465 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Flock, S. Jacques, B. Wilson, W. Star, and M. vanGemert, "The optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-9 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. van Staveren, C. Moes, J. van Marle, S. Prahl, and M. Gemert, "Light scattering in Intralipid-10 in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm," Appl. Opt. 30, 4507-4514 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Choukeife and J. L’Huillier, "Measurements of scattering effects within tissue-like media at two wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 680 nm," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 286-296 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Drakaki, S. Psycharakis, M. Makropoulou, and A. Serafetinides, "Optical properties and chromophore concentration measurements in tissue-like phantoms," Opt. Commun. 254, 40-51 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Driver, J. Feather, P. King, and J. Dawson, "The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion," Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Flock and B. W. M. Patterson, "Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm," Med. Phys. 14, 835-841 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Giusto, R. Saija, M. A. Iati, P. Denti, F. Borghese, and O. Sindoni, "Optical properties of high-density dispersions of particles: application to intralipid solutions," Appl. Opt. 42, 4375-4380 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Pham, F. Bevilacqua, T. Spott, J. Dam, and B. T. S. Andersson-Engels, "Quantifying the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissuelike turbid media over a broad spectral range with noncontact fouriertransform hyperspectral imaging," Appl. Opt. 39, 6487-6497 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Zaccanti, S. Bianco, and F. Martelli, "Measurements of optical properties of high-density media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4023-4030 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium." J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 246-254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. Wilson, "Spatially-resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for non-invasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Pilz and A. Kienle, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurement of the spatially resolved reflectance," in Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2007).
  16. F. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, "Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024,018 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Michels, S. Boll, and A. Kienle, "Measurement of the phase function of phantom medias with a two axis goniometer," in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging (SPIE, 2007).
  18. D. Lide, Handbook of chemistry and physics (CRC, 2008).
  19. C. Wabel, "Influence of lecithin on structure and stability of parental fat emulsions," Ph.D. thesis, University Erlangen, Germany (1998).
  20. The International Association for the Properties ofWater and Steam, "Release on the refractive index of ordinary water substance as a function of wavelength, temperature and pressure," (1997).
  21. G. Mie, "Beitrage zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen," Ann. Physik 330, 377-445 (1908).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, J. Zijp, P. Sloot, F. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. Koelink, "Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations," Appl. Opt. 31, 1370- 1376 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Pope and E. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

E. Drakaki, S. Psycharakis, M. Makropoulou, and A. Serafetinides, "Optical properties and chromophore concentration measurements in tissue-like phantoms," Opt. Commun. 254, 40-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. Choukeife and J. L’Huillier, "Measurements of scattering effects within tissue-like media at two wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 680 nm," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 286-296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium." J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 246-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Pope and E. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (3)

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, J. Zijp, P. Sloot, F. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. Koelink, "Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations," Appl. Opt. 31, 1370- 1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Allardice, A. M. Abulafi, D. Webb, and N. Willimas, "Standardization of intralipid for light scattering in clinical photodynamic therapy," Lasers Med. Sci. 7, 461-465 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Flock, S. Jacques, B. Wilson, W. Star, and M. vanGemert, "The optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-9 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

I. Driver, J. Feather, P. King, and J. Dawson, "The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion," Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Flock and B. W. M. Patterson, "Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm," Med. Phys. 14, 835-841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, "Beitrage zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen," Ann. Physik 330, 377-445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik (1)

G. Mie, "Beitrage zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen," Ann. Physik 330, 377-445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

G. Zaccanti, S. Bianco, and F. Martelli, "Measurements of optical properties of high-density media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4023-4030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Giusto, R. Saija, M. A. Iati, P. Denti, F. Borghese, and O. Sindoni, "Optical properties of high-density dispersions of particles: application to intralipid solutions," Appl. Opt. 42, 4375-4380 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. van Staveren, C. Moes, J. van Marle, S. Prahl, and M. Gemert, "Light scattering in Intralipid-10 in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm," Appl. Opt. 30, 4507-4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, J. Zijp, P. Sloot, F. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. Koelink, "Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations," Appl. Opt. 31, 1370- 1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. Wilson, "Spatially-resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for non-invasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pham, F. Bevilacqua, T. Spott, J. Dam, and B. T. S. Andersson-Engels, "Quantifying the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissuelike turbid media over a broad spectral range with noncontact fouriertransform hyperspectral imaging," Appl. Opt. 39, 6487-6497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Pope and E. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium." J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 246-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (2)

J. Allardice, A. M. Abulafi, D. Webb, and N. Willimas, "Standardization of intralipid for light scattering in clinical photodynamic therapy," Lasers Med. Sci. 7, 461-465 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Choukeife and J. L’Huillier, "Measurements of scattering effects within tissue-like media at two wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 680 nm," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 286-296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. Flock, S. Jacques, B. Wilson, W. Star, and M. vanGemert, "The optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510-9 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

S. Flock and B. W. M. Patterson, "Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm," Med. Phys. 14, 835-841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Drakaki, S. Psycharakis, M. Makropoulou, and A. Serafetinides, "Optical properties and chromophore concentration measurements in tissue-like phantoms," Opt. Commun. 254, 40-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

I. Driver, J. Feather, P. King, and J. Dawson, "The optical properties of aqueous suspensions of Intralipid, a fat emulsion," Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927-1930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Pilz and A. Kienle, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurement of the spatially resolved reflectance," in Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2007).

F. Forster, A. Kienle, R. Michels, and R. Hibst, "Phase function measurements on nonspherical scatterers using a two-axis goniometer," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024,018 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Michels, S. Boll, and A. Kienle, "Measurement of the phase function of phantom medias with a two axis goniometer," in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging (SPIE, 2007).

D. Lide, Handbook of chemistry and physics (CRC, 2008).

C. Wabel, "Influence of lecithin on structure and stability of parental fat emulsions," Ph.D. thesis, University Erlangen, Germany (1998).

The International Association for the Properties ofWater and Steam, "Release on the refractive index of ordinary water substance as a function of wavelength, temperature and pressure," (1997).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of collimated transmission setup to measure the attenuation coefficient µt =µa +µs .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Scheme of the CCD based spatially resolved reflectance setup to measure the reduced scattering coefficient. The sample is illuminated either with a laser or a collimated xenon-lamp monochromator source. b) Sketch of the goniometric setup to measure the phase function in the whole solid angle and thus the g factor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

a) Scheme of the coordinate system which is used for the phase function measurements. The scattering particle or the sample is illuminated from direction s⃗. The scattering occurs in direction s⃗. The incident direction of our measurements s⃗ was in z direction. For rotational symmetric scatterers the scattering of unpolarized light is independent of ϕ. b) Plot of different phase functions. The commonly used Henyey Greenstein phase function can be adjusted with the g parameter to isotropic scattering (g=0) forward scattering (g>0) and backward scattering (g<0). The g parameter of the Henyey Greenstein phase function is identical to the anisotropy factor g, the averaged cosine over all angles. As comparison the phase function of Lipovenoes 10% (λ=512nm, unpolarized), which has an anisotropy factor of g=0.8 is plotted (green). Please note the large difference between the Lipovenoes-, and the Henyey Greenstein phase function despite their identical anisotropy factor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) Sketch of the cuvette geometry. The scattering sample is held inside two glass slides. Usually the cuvette is parallel to the x-y plane. The principal distortions that influence the measured phase function are shown. The incident laser beam I 0 is reflected at the back of the cuvette. The reflected intensity R causes scattering in the opposite direction. Also the scattered light itself (red) is reflected at the glass boundaries (blue). Both effects produce the distortion of the phase function which can be seen in the plot on the right. In x-y plane, p(θ)=90, the light cannot exit the cuvette. b) The theoretical phase function of Intralipid was calculated according to van Staveren [5] (solid line). The distortion due to the cuvette was calculated for this phase function (dashed line). The characteristic distortion at 90° and in backward direction can be seen. The backward correction (dotted line) shows no deviation to the theory.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

a) Plot of the measured phase function of Lipovenoes20% (λ=650nm, perpendicular polarization) inside a slab geometry cuvette for different tilt angles of the cuvette to the x-y plane. The distortion of the phase function depends strongly on the angle of irradiation. b) Plot of the corrected phase functions of the measurements from (a).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

a) Plot of the measured scatterer concentration in different fat emulsions (green dots). The measurements match the Vol-% concentration of scatterers (red triangles) which was calculated from the contained soybean oil and egg lipid. b) Plot of the particle size distribution of the different fat emulsions which are used for the Mie theory calculations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of the phase function calculated with Mie theory to the phase function measurement for 2 different samples and 4 different wavelengths. The goniometric measurement is not corrected for distortions of the glass cuvette, but the Mie Theory calculation is forward corrected for a phase function measurement inside a glass cuvette. a) Comparison for Intralipid20%, b) Comparison for Lipovenoes10%.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Plot of the phase function of Lipovenoes10% for 350nm and 650nm. The comparison between the measurement results (purple curve), Mie theory (black curve) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for two different concentrations are shown. One MC simulation is calculated with a low concentration of scatterers inside the cuvette (0.004 Vol-%, green curve), the other is calculated for a concentration of scatterers similar to the measurement setup (0.04 Vol-%, red curve). The measurement and the Monte Carlo simulation with higher concentration show a deviation from the theory at 120° for short wavelengths.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Plot of the anisotropy factor of different fat emulsions vs. wavelength from λ=350nm-650nm measured with the goniometric setup (symbols). The corresponding calculations with Mie theory are plotted in the same color (curves).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Plot of the scattering coefficient (scaled for undiluted samples) versus the wavelength for the different fat emulsions, measured with the collimated transmission (curves). The corresponding calculations with Mie theory are plotted in the same color (symbols).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Plot of the measured reduced scattering coefficient (scaled for undiluted samples) for the different fat emulsions for wavelengths from 400nm to 650nm (symbols). The corresponding calculations with Mie theory are plotted in the same color (curves).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Plot of the absorption coefficient of Intralipid10%. The absorption of the solution is combined from the absorption of water and soy bean oil. When Intralipid10% is diluted to 0.5 Vol-% scatterer concentration, the absorption of soy bean oil is negligible for wavelengths higher than 550nm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

a) Plot of the phase function of ClinOleic20% for wavelengths from 400nm to 1000nm. The logarithm of the Intensity I(λ, θ)is plotted over the negative cosine of θ for angles from 0° to 180°. b) Plot of the absolute difference of the surface fit to the data of (a).

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Tab. 1. Ingredients of the investigated fat emulsions. Lipovenoes and Intralipid is fabricated by Fresenius Kabi, ClinOleic is fabricated by Baxter.

Tables Icon

Tab. 2. Coefficients for the calculation of the particle size distribution with Eq. 7 for different fat emulsions.

Tables Icon

Tab. 3. Parameters for the calculation of the g-factor with Eq. 9 (g(λ)=y 0+a·λ, λ[nm], g) and the corresponding residual r 2 of the fit.

Tables Icon

Tab. 4. Parameters for the calculation of the scattering coefficient with Eq. 10 (µs (λ)=a·λ b , λ[nm], µs [mm-1]) and the corresponding residual r 2 of the fit.

Tables Icon

Tab. 5. Parameters for the calculation of the reduced scattering coefficient with Eq. 11 (µ s (λ)=yo +a·λ+b·λ2, λ[nm], µ s [mm-1]) and the corresponding residual r 2 of the fit.

Tables Icon

Tab. 6. Parameters for the calculation of the absorption coefficient with Eq. 12 ( μ a = a ( 1 + e λ x 0 b ) , λ[nm], µa [mm-1]) and the corresponding residual r 2 of the fit.

Tables Icon

Tab. 7. Parameters for the calculation of the phase function p(λ,θ) with Eq. 13 ( log ( p ( x , λ ) ) = a + b · x + c · x 2 + d · λ 1 + e · x + f · λ + g · λ 2 , x=-cos(θ), λ[nm], θ[°], p[a.u.]) and the corresponding residual r 2 and standard error of the fit Stderr , which is defined by Std err = S err X N with XN the degrees of freedom and Serr the sum of squares of the error.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( λ ) = I 0 · e ( μ t ( λ ) · c · d ) ,
μ s = μ s ( 1 g ) .
n ( λ ) = I + J λ 2 + K λ 4 ,
μ s = d C sca ( d ) · σ sca ( d ) V ( d ) .
p tot ( θ ) = i N i · p i ( θ ) N tot ,
g = 4 π p ( Ω ) cos θ d Ω 4 π p ( Ω ) d Ω .
N ( d ) = 10 α · d , d [ d min , d max ] .
μ a ( ges ) = i = 1 n μ a ( i ) · σ sca ( i ) .
g ( λ ) = y 0 + a · λ ,
μ s ( λ ) = a · λ b
μ s ( λ ) = y o + a · λ + b · λ 2 .
μ a ( λ ) = a ( 1 + e λ x 0 b ) .
log ( p ( x , λ ) ) = a + b · x + c · x 2 + d · λ 1 + e · x + f · λ + g · λ 2 , with x = cos ( θ ) .

Metrics