Abstract

High-power room-temperature operation of an Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm in-band pumped by a cladding-pumped Er, Yb fiber laser at 1532 nm is reported. The Er:YAG laser yielded 31 W of continuous-wave output in a beam with M2≈2.2 for 72 W of incident pump power. The threshold pump power was 4.1 W and the slope efficiency with respect to incident pump power was ~47%. The influence of erbium doping level and resonator design on laser performance is discussed, and the prospects for further increase in output power and improvement in lasing efficiency are considered.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG lasers with >60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett 31, 754–756 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser in-band pumped by an Er Yb fiber laser,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada WD4 (2006).
  3. Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645 nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1075–1077 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Leyva and K. Spariosu, “Power scaling of 1617-nm Er:YAG laser operation using a narrow bandwidth output coupler,” Proc. SPIE,  6100, 61000C (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W (0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121101–121103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).
  9. I. Kudryashov, D. Garbuzov, and M. Dubinskii, “Volume Bragg grating improves characteristics of resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG 1.65 µm DPSSL,” Proc. SPIE,  6451, 64510P (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Kim, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Impact of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of hybrid Er:YAG lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 6871W (2007).
  11. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and >100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).

I. Kudryashov, D. Garbuzov, and M. Dubinskii, “Volume Bragg grating improves characteristics of resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG 1.65 µm DPSSL,” Proc. SPIE,  6451, 64510P (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Impact of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of hybrid Er:YAG lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 6871W (2007).

2006 (4)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG lasers with >60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett 31, 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser in-band pumped by an Er Yb fiber laser,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada WD4 (2006).

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Leyva and K. Spariosu, “Power scaling of 1617-nm Er:YAG laser operation using a narrow bandwidth output coupler,” Proc. SPIE,  6100, 61000C (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W (0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121101–121103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and >100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Budni, P. A.

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645 nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

J. W. Kim, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Impact of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of hybrid Er:YAG lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 6871W (2007).

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG lasers with >60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett 31, 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser in-band pumped by an Er Yb fiber laser,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada WD4 (2006).

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and >100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubinskii, M.

M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).

I. Kudryashov, D. Garbuzov, and M. Dubinskii, “Volume Bragg grating improves characteristics of resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG 1.65 µm DPSSL,” Proc. SPIE,  6451, 64510P (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W (0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121101–121103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Francis, M. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielyan, N. T.

M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).

Garbuzov, D.

I. Kudryashov, D. Garbuzov, and M. Dubinskii, “Volume Bragg grating improves characteristics of resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG 1.65 µm DPSSL,” Proc. SPIE,  6451, 64510P (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W (0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121101–121103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Impact of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of hybrid Er:YAG lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 6871W (2007).

Klotz, M. J.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konves, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, I.

I. Kudryashov, D. Garbuzov, and M. Dubinskii, “Volume Bragg grating improves characteristics of resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG 1.65 µm DPSSL,” Proc. SPIE,  6451, 64510P (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W (0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121101–121103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

V. Leyva and K. Spariosu, “Power scaling of 1617-nm Er:YAG laser operation using a narrow bandwidth output coupler,” Proc. SPIE,  6100, 61000C (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).

Newburgh, G. A.

M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).

Pollak, T. M.

Reeder, R. A.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

J. W. Kim, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Impact of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of hybrid Er:YAG lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 6871W (2007).

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser in-band pumped by an Er Yb fiber laser,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada WD4 (2006).

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG lasers with >60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett 31, 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and >100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645 nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG lasers with >60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett 31, 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser in-band pumped by an Er Yb fiber laser,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada WD4 (2006).

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and >100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13, 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snell, K. J.

Spariosu, K.

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Leyva and K. Spariosu, “Power scaling of 1617-nm Er:YAG laser operation using a narrow bandwidth output coupler,” Proc. SPIE,  6100, 61000C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, Y. E.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645 nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada (1)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser in-band pumped by an Er Yb fiber laser,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2006 Nevada WD4 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W (0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6 µm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121101–121103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Spariosu, V. Leyva, R. A. Reeder, and M. J. Klotz, “Efficient Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 and 1617 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 182–186 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett (1)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG lasers with >60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett 31, 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

V. Leyva and K. Spariosu, “Power scaling of 1617-nm Er:YAG laser operation using a narrow bandwidth output coupler,” Proc. SPIE,  6100, 61000C (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Kudryashov, D. Garbuzov, and M. Dubinskii, “Volume Bragg grating improves characteristics of resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG 1.65 µm DPSSL,” Proc. SPIE,  6451, 64510P (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Impact of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of hybrid Er:YAG lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 6871W (2007).

Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007 (1)

M. Dubinskii, N. T. Gabrielyan, G. A. Newburgh, and L. D. Merkle, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG cryo-laser at 1618 nm,” Technical Digest in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2007, Post-deadline papers  MF5 (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Er:YAG energy-level diagram showing the laser transitions at 1617 nm and 1645 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of Er:YAG resonator. IC : input coupler mirror (AR at 1532 nm and HR at 1600–1700 nm). OC : output coupler mirror (Transmission (T) of 10 %, 20 %, 30 % or 50 % at 1600–1700 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated gain cross-sections at 1617 nm and 1645 nm as a function of the population inversion parameter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output power versus incident pump power for Er:YAG laser with 0.5 at.% doping level (a) using output couplers with transmissions of 10%, 20% and 30%. (The solid symbols represent 1617 nm operation with an etalon and the open symbols represent 1645 nm operation). (b) Output power at 1617 nm with output coupler transmissions of 20%, 30% (with etalon) and 50% (without etalon).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Er:YAG laser output power at 1617 nm versus pump power for (a) different Er3+ doping levels using an output coupler with 50% transmission and (b) an optimized cavity design using a 0.25 at. % crystal.

Equations (2)

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σ g N 1 = [ log e ( 1 T ) + log e ( 1 L ) ]
σ g = β σ e ( 1 β ) σ a

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