Abstract

We investigated the possibility to trigger real-scale lightning using ionized filaments generated by ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere. Under conditions of high electric field during two thunderstorms, we observed a statistically significant number of electric events synchronized with the laser pulses, at the location of the filaments. This observation suggests that corona discharges may have been triggered by filaments.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, "Artificially triggered lightning above land," Nature 257, 212-214 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, "A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida," Atmos. Res. 76, 503-517 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, "Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244-1252 (1993).
  4. S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, T. Yamanaka, Z. Kawasaki, and K.  Tsubakimoto, "Laser-triggered lightning in field experiments," J. Opt. Technol. 66, 199-202 (1999).
  5. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20, 73-75 (1995).
  6. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Physiol. 83, 863-905 (2005).
  7. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Power dependence of dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propgating in air," Opt. Express 4, 223-228 (1999).
  12. S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M.  Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
  14. X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S.  Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, "Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 89, 2511-2521 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, "Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 105, 285-302 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, "A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573-3576 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 104 (1994).
  25. P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D.  Holden, "Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory," EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).
  26. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P.  Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688-700 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, "High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146-158 (2001).
  29. G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P.  Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, "Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels," Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, "32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, "Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels," Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, "32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P.  Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S.  Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, "A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida," Atmos. Res. 76, 503-517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Physiol. 83, 863-905 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M.  Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, "High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146-158 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).

1999 (4)

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, "A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573-3576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P.  Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Power dependence of dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propgating in air," Opt. Express 4, 223-228 (1999).

S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, T. Yamanaka, Z. Kawasaki, and K.  Tsubakimoto, "Laser-triggered lightning in field experiments," J. Opt. Technol. 66, 199-202 (1999).

1995 (2)

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20, 73-75 (1995).

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 104 (1994).

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D.  Holden, "Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory," EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, "Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244-1252 (1993).

1984 (1)

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, "Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 89, 2511-2521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, "Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 105, 285-302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, "Artificially triggered lightning above land," Nature 257, 212-214 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K.  Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions," Appl. Phys. B 80, 785-789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P.  Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, "32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, "A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida," Atmos. Res. 76, 503-517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Physiol. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G.  Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Physiol. 83, 863-905 (2005).

EOS, Transactions. AGU (2)

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 104 (1994).

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D.  Holden, "Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory," EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, "A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573-3576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P.  Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] (1)

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, "Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico," J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 89, 2511-2521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. of Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, "High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146-158 (2001).

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus (1)

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, "Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244-1252 (1993).

Nature (1)

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 181, 123-127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (5)

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M.  Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, "Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J.  Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S.  Champeaux, and L. Bergé, "Multifilamentation transmission through fog," Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, "Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels," Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
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Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, "Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 105, 285-302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P.  Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A.  Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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