Abstract

Three-photon absorption (3PA) and three-photon-excited photoluminescence (3PE-PL) of ZnSe/ZnS and copper-doped ZnSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solutions have been unambiguously determined by Z-scan and 3PE-PL measurements with 200-fs laser pulses at 1000 nm. The 3PA cross-section is as high as 3.5×10-77 cm6 s2 photon-2 for 4.1 nm-sized, copper-doped ZnSe/ZnS QDs, while their below-band-edge PL is found to be nearly cubic dependent on the excitation intensity, with efficiency enhanced by ~20 fold compared to the undoped ZnSe/ZnS QDs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

G. S. He, K-T. Yong, Q. Zheng, Y. Sahoo, A. Baev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, and P. N. Prasad, "Multi-photon excitation properties of CdSe quantum dots solutions and optical limiting behavior in infrared range," Opt. Express 15, 12818-12833 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pradhan, D. M. Battaglia, Y. Liu, and X. G. Peng, "Efficient, stable, small, and water-soluble doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters as non-cadmium biomedical labels," Nano Lett. 7, 312-317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, and W. L. Liu, "Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanocrystals by use of near-infrared femtosecond laser excitation," Opt. Lett. 32, 1174-1176 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, "Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, "Measurement and assignment of the size-dependent optical spectrum in CdSe quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338-16346 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

H. S. Brandi and C. B. D. Araujo, "Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: A universal curve," J. Phys. C 16, 5929-5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

Albota, M. A.

Araujo, C. B. D.

H. S. Brandi and C. B. D. Araujo, "Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: A universal curve," J. Phys. C 16, 5929-5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

Baev, A.

Battaglia, D. M.

N. Pradhan, D. M. Battaglia, Y. Liu, and X. G. Peng, "Efficient, stable, small, and water-soluble doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters as non-cadmium biomedical labels," Nano Lett. 7, 312-317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, "Measurement and assignment of the size-dependent optical spectrum in CdSe quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338-16346 (1996).
[Crossref]

Beek, T. V. D.

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bhagwat, U. A.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Brandi, H. S.

H. S. Brandi and C. B. D. Araujo, "Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: A universal curve," J. Phys. C 16, 5929-5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bullen, C.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chon, J. W. M.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, S. K.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Feldmann, J.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Franzl, T.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goorskey, D.

N. Pradhan, D. Goorskey, J. Thessing, and X. G. Peng, "An alternative of CdSe nanocrystal emitters: pure and tunable impurity emissions in ZnSe nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 17586-17587 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

He, G. S.

He, J.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jatwa, L.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, J. J.

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Khosravi, A. A.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Klar, T. A.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, S. K.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kundu, M.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, H. P.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W. L.

Liu, Y.

N. Pradhan, D. M. Battaglia, Y. Liu, and X. G. Peng, "Efficient, stable, small, and water-soluble doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters as non-cadmium biomedical labels," Nano Lett. 7, 312-317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maiti, S.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mi, J.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, J.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mulvaney, P.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Norris, D. J.

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, "Measurement and assignment of the size-dependent optical spectrum in CdSe quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338-16346 (1996).
[Crossref]

Peng, X. G.

N. Pradhan, D. M. Battaglia, Y. Liu, and X. G. Peng, "Efficient, stable, small, and water-soluble doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters as non-cadmium biomedical labels," Nano Lett. 7, 312-317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pradhan, D. Goorskey, J. Thessing, and X. G. Peng, "An alternative of CdSe nanocrystal emitters: pure and tunable impurity emissions in ZnSe nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 17586-17587 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pradhan, N.

N. Pradhan, D. M. Battaglia, Y. Liu, and X. G. Peng, "Efficient, stable, small, and water-soluble doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters as non-cadmium biomedical labels," Nano Lett. 7, 312-317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pradhan, D. Goorskey, J. Thessing, and X. G. Peng, "An alternative of CdSe nanocrystal emitters: pure and tunable impurity emissions in ZnSe nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 17586-17587 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

Qu, Y. L.

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogach, A. L.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ryasnyanskiy, A. I.

Sahoo, Y.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sastry, M.

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shear, J. B.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Styland, E. W. V.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Talapin, D. V.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thessing, J.

N. Pradhan, D. Goorskey, J. Thessing, and X. G. Peng, "An alternative of CdSe nanocrystal emitters: pure and tunable impurity emissions in ZnSe nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 17586-17587 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weller, H.

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. M.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W. Z.

Wuister, S. F.

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Yong, K-T.

Zheng, Q.

Zheng, Z. R.

Zipfel, W. R.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. F. Suyver, T. V. D. Beek, S. F. Wuister, J. J. Kelly, and A. Meijerink, "Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Cu," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4222-4224 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. A. Khosravi, M. Kundu, L. Jatwa, S. K. Deshpande, U. A. Bhagwat, M. Sastry, and S. K. Kulkarni, "Green luminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide quantum particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2702-2704 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Styland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem Soc. (1)

N. Pradhan, D. Goorskey, J. Thessing, and X. G. Peng, "An alternative of CdSe nanocrystal emitters: pure and tunable impurity emissions in ZnSe nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 17586-17587 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

H. S. Brandi and C. B. D. Araujo, "Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: A universal curve," J. Phys. C 16, 5929-5936 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

T. Franzl, J. Müller, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, D. V. Talapin, and H. Weller, "CdSe:Te nanocrystals: Band-edge versus Te-related emission," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2974-2979 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Pradhan, D. M. Battaglia, Y. Liu, and X. G. Peng, "Efficient, stable, small, and water-soluble doped ZnSe nanocrystal emitters as non-cadmium biomedical labels," Nano Lett. 7, 312-317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Express. (1)

J. He, Y. L. Qu, H. P. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express. 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. J. Norris and M. G. Bawendi, "Measurement and assignment of the size-dependent optical spectrum in CdSe quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 53, 16338-16346 (1996).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112/1-133112/3 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. He, W. Ji, J. Mi, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Three-photon absorption in water-soluble ZnS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181114/1-181114/3 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, G. R. Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, "Three-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133113/1-133113/3 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. B. Li and L. W. Wang, "Band-structure-corrected local density approximation study of semiconductor quantum dots and wires," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125325/1-125325/15 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005) and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003) and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). One-photon absorption spectra (solid lines), PL spectra (dashed lines) and PLE spectra (dotted lines) of ZnSe/ZnS QDs (black) and Zn(Cu)Se/ZnS QDs (red) in aqueous solution. The PL spectra were measured with an excitation wavelength of 360 nm, and the PLE spectra were obtained with an emission wavelength of 540 nm. (b). Schematic diagram for photodynamics under one-, two-, and three-photon excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Open-aperture Z-scans with 200-fs, 1000-nm laser pulses at different excitation irradiances (I00) for the aqueous solutions of (a) ZnSe/ZnS QDs and (b) Zn(Cu)Se/ZnS QDs. The symbols denote the experiment data, while the solid lines are the theoretical curves. The insets show the plots of Ln(1-T OA) vs. Ln(I0), and the solid lines represent the linear fits.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Three-photon-excited PL spectra of ZnSe/ZnS (oe-16-8-5715-i001) and Zn(Cu)Se/ZnS (oe-16-8-5715-i002) QDs in water are compared with that of Rhodamine 6G in methanol (oe-16-8-5715-i003). The PL spectra are obtained with 1000-nm excitation wavelength at 77 GW/cm2. The inset shows log-log plots for the PL signals as a function of the excitation intensity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

One-photon-excited (-) (excitation wavelength=360 nm) and three-photon-excited oe-16-8-5715-i004 (excitation wavelength=1000 nm) PL spectra of the Zn(Cu)Se/ZnS QDs (top) and ZnSe/ZnS QDs (bottom) in aqueous solution. For comparison purpose, all the spectra are normalized.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. QD density, diameter, band-gap energy and 3PA of bulk and QD semiconductors.

Equations (4)

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N e h N = γ N I 0 3 3 ћ ω · τ G · π 6 = 10.5
f 2 ~ η 2 ϕ σ 2 ρ 1 · ds · dz · I r 2
f 3 ~ η 3 ϕ σ 3 ρ 2 · ds · dz · I r 3
F 3 F 2 = 2 3 3 η 3 η 2 σ 3 I 0 σ 2 ρ 2 ρ 1 .

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