Abstract

This study examined the effects of the thickness of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor films on quartz substrates coated with two-dimensional (2D) SiO2 square-lattice nanorod photonic crystal layers (PCL) at identical heights on their extraction and absorption efficiency. The photoluminescence (PL) efficiency enhancement ratio decreased exponentially with increasing Y2O3:Eu3+ film thickness. The 2D PCL-assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ film with a thickness (t)=400 nm showed enhancement in the upward and downward PL emission by factors of 6.2 and 8.6, respectively, with respect to those of a conventional flat film. This observation was attributed to diffraction scattering of the excitation and emission light.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K.-S. Sohn, N. Shin, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Effect of corrugated substrates on light extraction efficiency and the mechanism of growth in pulsed laser deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 55-57 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K.-Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, Y. R. Do, and Y.-D. Huh, "Structural effect of a two-dimensional SiO2 photonic crystal layer on extraction efficiency in sputter-deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotech. 2, 515-520 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. R. Do, H. T. Kwak, and M. M. Sung, "Effect of extinction coefficient on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors grown on two-dimensional nanorod substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251912 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benistry, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S. H. Cho, D. S. Zang, Y.-D. Huh and S. J. Yun, "Influence of a two-dimensional SiO2 nanorod structure on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1377-1379 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T.-L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. L. Jones, D. Kumar, K.-G. Cho, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, "Pulsed laser deposition of Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors," Displays 19, 151-167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007

K.-Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, Y. R. Do, and Y.-D. Huh, "Structural effect of a two-dimensional SiO2 photonic crystal layer on extraction efficiency in sputter-deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotech. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benistry, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T.-L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency in pulse laser deposited Gd2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors on 2-D PCLs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 8, H43-H45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, H. T. Kwak, and M. M. Sung, "Effect of extinction coefficient on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors grown on two-dimensional nanorod substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K.-S. Sohn, N. Shin, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Effect of corrugated substrates on light extraction efficiency and the mechanism of growth in pulsed laser deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 55-57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, and M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S. H. Cho, D. S. Zang, Y.-D. Huh and S. J. Yun, "Influence of a two-dimensional SiO2 nanorod structure on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1377-1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, "Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573-3575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jones, D. Kumar, K.-G. Cho, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, "Pulsed laser deposition of Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors," Displays 19, 151-167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, and M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, "Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573-3575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Sohn, N. Shin, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Effect of corrugated substrates on light extraction efficiency and the mechanism of growth in pulsed laser deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 55-57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, H. T. Kwak, and M. M. Sung, "Effect of extinction coefficient on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors grown on two-dimensional nanorod substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benistry, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S. H. Cho, D. S. Zang, Y.-D. Huh and S. J. Yun, "Influence of a two-dimensional SiO2 nanorod structure on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1377-1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T.-L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Displays

S. L. Jones, D. Kumar, K.-G. Cho, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, "Pulsed laser deposition of Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors," Displays 19, 151-167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid State Lett.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency in pulse laser deposited Gd2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors on 2-D PCLs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 8, H43-H45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K.-Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, Y. R. Do, and Y.-D. Huh, "Structural effect of a two-dimensional SiO2 photonic crystal layer on extraction efficiency in sputter-deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature Nanotech.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotech. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a Y2O3:Eu3+ thin film coated on a 2D SiO2 photonic crystal layer on a quartz glass substrate with a lattice constant, Λ, a nanorod height, h, a diameter, d, and a film thickness, t, as well as the light paths of the three different forms of emitted light: upward (top phosphor side) emission, downward (bottom quartz side) emission, and guided (edge side) emission.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional and top view FE-SEM images (insets) of the Y2O3:Eu3+ thin films of various thicknesses (t) on quartz substrates modified with 2D SiO2 PC nanorod arrays (lattice constant, 600 nm; height, 200 nm; diameter, 300 nm): (a) 200 nm; (b) 400 nm; (c) 2 µm; (d) 4 µm. Scale bar: 500nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relative photoluminescence intensity of the downward emissions of flat and 2D PCL-assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ films as a function of the thickness of the Y2O3:Eu3+ films deposited on identical height PCLs (200 nm). The inset shows the emission spectra resulting from integrated PL measurements of 2D PCL-coated Y2O3:Eu3+ TFPs with excitation at 254 nm and t=400 nm and of a flat conventional film.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured and calculated upward and downward emitted PL light efficiencies for Y2O3:Eu3+ films relative to those of flat samples as a function of the Y2O3:Eu3+ film thickness on identical height PCLs (200 nm). The inset shows actual photographs (taken with a Samsung camera, model #11) of the side views of the flat and 2D PCL-assisted TFPs with t=400 nm under illumination at 254 nm (SPECTROLINE mercury lamp, MODEL ENF-2400C/FE).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). The relative of absorption intensity at 254 nm of both the flat and 2D PCL assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ films, and (b) the measured downward emitted PL emission efficiency ratios, extraction efficiency ratios and absorption efficiency ratios of the 2D PCL assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ films relative to those of the flat samples as a function of the Y2O3:Eu3+ film thickness on the identical height PCLs (200 nm).

Equations (2)

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E R = A exp ( ( t / h ) / a ) + E R 0
Δ η t o t . e x t . = Δ η P C L e x t r . Δ η P C L a b s o r p .

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