Abstract

This study examined the effects of the thickness of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor films on quartz substrates coated with two-dimensional (2D) SiO2 square-lattice nanorod photonic crystal layers (PCL) at identical heights on their extraction and absorption efficiency. The photoluminescence (PL) efficiency enhancement ratio decreased exponentially with increasing Y2O3:Eu3+ film thickness. The 2D PCL-assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ film with a thickness (t)=400 nm showed enhancement in the upward and downward PL emission by factors of 6.2 and 8.6, respectively, with respect to those of a conventional flat film. This observation was attributed to diffraction scattering of the excitation and emission light.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K.-S. Sohn, N. Shin, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Effect of corrugated substrates on light extraction efficiency and the mechanism of growth in pulsed laser deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 55-57 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K.-Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, Y. R. Do, and Y.-D. Huh, "Structural effect of a two-dimensional SiO2 photonic crystal layer on extraction efficiency in sputter-deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotech. 2, 515-520 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, and M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency in pulse laser deposited Gd2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors on 2-D PCLs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 8, H43-H45 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. R. Do, H. T. Kwak, and M. M. Sung, "Effect of extinction coefficient on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors grown on two-dimensional nanorod substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251912 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benistry, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S. H. Cho, D. S. Zang, Y.-D. Huh and S. J. Yun, "Influence of a two-dimensional SiO2 nanorod structure on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1377-1379 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T.-L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. L. Jones, D. Kumar, K.-G. Cho, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, "Pulsed laser deposition of Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors," Displays 19, 151-167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K.-Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, Y. R. Do, and Y.-D. Huh, "Structural effect of a two-dimensional SiO2 photonic crystal layer on extraction efficiency in sputter-deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotech. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benistry, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T.-L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency in pulse laser deposited Gd2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors on 2-D PCLs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 8, H43-H45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, H. T. Kwak, and M. M. Sung, "Effect of extinction coefficient on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors grown on two-dimensional nanorod substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K.-S. Sohn, N. Shin, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Effect of corrugated substrates on light extraction efficiency and the mechanism of growth in pulsed laser deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 55-57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S. H. Cho, D. S. Zang, Y.-D. Huh and S. J. Yun, "Influence of a two-dimensional SiO2 nanorod structure on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1377-1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, and M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, "Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573-3575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jones, D. Kumar, K.-G. Cho, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, "Pulsed laser deposition of Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors," Displays 19, 151-167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, and M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1214-1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, Y.-H. Lee, R. L. Sellin, and D. Bimberg, "Over 30-fold enhancement of light extraction from free-standing photonic crystal slabs with InGaAs quantum dots at low temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3573-3575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1036-1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Sohn, N. Shin, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, "Effect of corrugated substrates on light extraction efficiency and the mechanism of growth in pulsed laser deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 55-57 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, H. T. Kwak, and M. M. Sung, "Effect of extinction coefficient on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors grown on two-dimensional nanorod substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benistry, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, S. H. Cho, D. S. Zang, Y.-D. Huh and S. J. Yun, "Influence of a two-dimensional SiO2 nanorod structure on the extraction efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1377-1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T.-L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

S. L. Jones, D. Kumar, K.-G. Cho, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, "Pulsed laser deposition of Y2O3:Eu thin film phosphors," Displays 19, 151-167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid State Lett. (1)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, N. Shin, and K.-S. Sohn, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency in pulse laser deposited Gd2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors on 2-D PCLs," Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 8, H43-H45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K.-Y. Ko, Y. K. Lee, Y. R. Do, and Y.-D. Huh, "Structural effect of a two-dimensional SiO2 photonic crystal layer on extraction efficiency in sputter-deposited Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature Nanotech. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotech. 2, 515-520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, "High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a Y2O3:Eu3+ thin film coated on a 2D SiO2 photonic crystal layer on a quartz glass substrate with a lattice constant, Λ, a nanorod height, h, a diameter, d, and a film thickness, t, as well as the light paths of the three different forms of emitted light: upward (top phosphor side) emission, downward (bottom quartz side) emission, and guided (edge side) emission.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional and top view FE-SEM images (insets) of the Y2O3:Eu3+ thin films of various thicknesses (t) on quartz substrates modified with 2D SiO2 PC nanorod arrays (lattice constant, 600 nm; height, 200 nm; diameter, 300 nm): (a) 200 nm; (b) 400 nm; (c) 2 µm; (d) 4 µm. Scale bar: 500nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relative photoluminescence intensity of the downward emissions of flat and 2D PCL-assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ films as a function of the thickness of the Y2O3:Eu3+ films deposited on identical height PCLs (200 nm). The inset shows the emission spectra resulting from integrated PL measurements of 2D PCL-coated Y2O3:Eu3+ TFPs with excitation at 254 nm and t=400 nm and of a flat conventional film.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured and calculated upward and downward emitted PL light efficiencies for Y2O3:Eu3+ films relative to those of flat samples as a function of the Y2O3:Eu3+ film thickness on identical height PCLs (200 nm). The inset shows actual photographs (taken with a Samsung camera, model #11) of the side views of the flat and 2D PCL-assisted TFPs with t=400 nm under illumination at 254 nm (SPECTROLINE mercury lamp, MODEL ENF-2400C/FE).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). The relative of absorption intensity at 254 nm of both the flat and 2D PCL assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ films, and (b) the measured downward emitted PL emission efficiency ratios, extraction efficiency ratios and absorption efficiency ratios of the 2D PCL assisted Y2O3:Eu3+ films relative to those of the flat samples as a function of the Y2O3:Eu3+ film thickness on the identical height PCLs (200 nm).

Equations (2)

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E R = A exp ( ( t / h ) / a ) + E R 0
Δ η t o t . e x t . = Δ η P C L e x t r . Δ η P C L a b s o r p .

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