Abstract

Laser writing of longitudinal waveguides in bulk transparent materials degrades with the focusing depth due to wavefront distortions generated at the air-dielectric interface. Using adaptive spatial tailoring of ultrashort laser pulses, we show that spherical aberrations can be dynamically compensated in optical glasses, in synchronization with the writing procedure. Aberration-free structures can thus be induced at different depths, showing higher flexibility for 3D processing. This enables optimal writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides over more significant lengths. The corrective process becomes increasingly important when laser energy has to be transported without losses at arbitrary depths, with the purpose of triggering mechanisms of positive refractive index change.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
  2. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
  3. T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 725-727 (2001).
  4. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101/1-4 (2006).
  5. K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
  6. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta "1.5 m single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 15, 3190-3194 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman "Type II high-strength Bragg grating waveguides photowritten with ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 15, 4182-4191 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Huot, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, and E. Audouard, "Analysis of the effects of spherical aberration on ultrafast laser-induced refractive index variation in glass," Opt. Express 15, 12395-12408 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-indexmismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).
  14. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517/1-5 (2005).
  15. A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkasis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
  16. Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," Pure and Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).
  17. D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).
  19. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Mitsuyu, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
  21. M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. J. Booth, M. Schwertner, T. Wilson, M. Nakano, Y. Kawata, M. Nakabayashi, and S. Miyata, "Predictive aberration correction for multilayer optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031109/1-3 (2006).
  23. J. Hahn, H. Kim, K. Choi, and B. Lee, "Real-time digital holographic beam-shaping system with a genetic feedback tuning loop," Appl. Opt. 45, 915-924 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
  25. N. Sanner, N. Huot, E. Audouard, C. Larat, J.-P. Huignard, and B. Loiseaux, "Programmable focal spot shaping of amplified femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 30, 1479-1481 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching lasers to control molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1998).
  28. A. Bartelt, "Control of wave packet dynamics in small alkali clusters with optimally shaped femtosecond pulses," Ph.D. Thesis Freie Universitat Berlin (2002).
  29. A. Mermillod-Blondin, "Analysis and optimization of ultrafast laser-induced bulk modifications in dielectric materials," Ph.D. Thesis Freie Universitat Berlin (2007).
  30. L. Hallo, A. Bourgeade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, C. Mezel, and J. Breil, "Model and numerical simulations of the propagation and absorption of a short laser pulse in a transparent dielectric material: Blast-wave launch and cavity formation," Phys. Rev. B 76, 024101/1-12 (2007).
  31. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass," Opt. Express 15, 5674-5686 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (4)

J. Hahn, H. Kim, K. Choi, and B. Lee, "Real-time digital holographic beam-shaping system with a genetic feedback tuning loop," Appl. Opt. 45, 915-924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkasis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).

2001 (1)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 725-727 (2001).

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-indexmismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching lasers to control molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1998).

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Mitsuyu, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkasis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 725-727 (2001).

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Mitsuyu, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).

J. Micros. (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-indexmismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).

MRS Bull. (1)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching lasers to control molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1998).

Pure and Appl. Opt. (1)

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," Pure and Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. Bartelt, "Control of wave packet dynamics in small alkali clusters with optimally shaped femtosecond pulses," Ph.D. Thesis Freie Universitat Berlin (2002).

A. Mermillod-Blondin, "Analysis and optimization of ultrafast laser-induced bulk modifications in dielectric materials," Ph.D. Thesis Freie Universitat Berlin (2007).

L. Hallo, A. Bourgeade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, C. Mezel, and J. Breil, "Model and numerical simulations of the propagation and absorption of a short laser pulse in a transparent dielectric material: Blast-wave launch and cavity formation," Phys. Rev. B 76, 024101/1-12 (2007).

M. J. Booth, M. Schwertner, T. Wilson, M. Nakano, Y. Kawata, M. Nakabayashi, and S. Miyata, "Predictive aberration correction for multilayer optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031109/1-3 (2006).

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517/1-5 (2005).

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101/1-4 (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics