Abstract

Laser writing of longitudinal waveguides in bulk transparent materials degrades with the focusing depth due to wavefront distortions generated at the air-dielectric interface. Using adaptive spatial tailoring of ultrashort laser pulses, we show that spherical aberrations can be dynamically compensated in optical glasses, in synchronization with the writing procedure. Aberration-free structures can thus be induced at different depths, showing higher flexibility for 3D processing. This enables optimal writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides over more significant lengths. The corrective process becomes increasingly important when laser energy has to be transported without losses at arbitrary depths, with the purpose of triggering mechanisms of positive refractive index change.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

2006 (4)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).

J. Hahn, H. Kim, K. Choi, and B. Lee, "Real-time digital holographic beam-shaping system with a genetic feedback tuning loop," Appl. Opt. 45, 915-924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkasis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 725-727 (2001).

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-indexmismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching lasers to control molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1998).

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Mitsuyu, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkasis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 725-727 (2001).

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Mitsuyu, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).

J. Micros. (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, and T. Wilson, "Aberration correction for confocal imaging in refractive-indexmismatched media," J. Microsc. 192, 90-98 (1998).

MRS Bull. (1)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching lasers to control molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1998).

Pure and Appl. Opt. (1)

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," Pure and Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517/1-5 (2005).

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101/1-4 (2006).

A. Bartelt, "Control of wave packet dynamics in small alkali clusters with optimally shaped femtosecond pulses," Ph.D. Thesis Freie Universitat Berlin (2002).

A. Mermillod-Blondin, "Analysis and optimization of ultrafast laser-induced bulk modifications in dielectric materials," Ph.D. Thesis Freie Universitat Berlin (2007).

L. Hallo, A. Bourgeade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, C. Mezel, and J. Breil, "Model and numerical simulations of the propagation and absorption of a short laser pulse in a transparent dielectric material: Blast-wave launch and cavity formation," Phys. Rev. B 76, 024101/1-12 (2007).

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).

M. J. Booth, M. Schwertner, T. Wilson, M. Nakano, Y. Kawata, M. Nakabayashi, and S. Miyata, "Predictive aberration correction for multilayer optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 031109/1-3 (2006).

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