Abstract

We report an experimental method to create optical lattices with real-time control of their periodicity. We demonstrate a continuous change of the lattice periodicity from 0.96 µm to 11.2 µm in one second, while the center fringe only moves less than 2.7 µm during the whole process. This provides a powerful tool for controlling ultracold atoms in optical lattices, where small spacing is essential for quantum tunneling, and large spacing enables single-site manipulation and spatially resolved detection.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Morsch and M. Oberthaler, “Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 179–215 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, “Observation of a one-dimensional Tonks-Girardeau gas,” Sceince 305, 1125–1128 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. D. Nelson, X. Li, and D. S. Weiss, “Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array,” Nature Phys. 3, 556–560 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Huckans, “Optical lattices and quantum degenerate 87Rb in reduced dimensions,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park (2006).
  15. L. Fallani, C. Fort, J. E. Lye, and M. Inguscio, “Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with tunable spacing: transport and static properties,” Opt. Express 13, 4303–4313 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference frings formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. S. Xie, M. Li, J. Guo, B. Liang, Z. X. Wang, A. Sinitskii, Y. Xiang, and J. Y. Zhou, “Phase manipulated multi-beam holographic lithography for tunable optical lattices,” Opt. Express 15, 7032–7037 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Morsch and M. Oberthaler, “Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 179–215 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. Fallani, C. Fort, J. E. Lye, and M. Inguscio, “Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with tunable spacing: transport and static properties,” Opt. Express 13, 4303–4313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference frings formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, “Observation of a one-dimensional Tonks-Girardeau gas,” Sceince 305, 1125–1128 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bloch, I.

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brennen, G. K.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burger, S.

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cataliotti, F. S.

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Caves, C. M.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cirac, I.

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deutsch, I. H.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallani, L.

Fölling, S.

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fort, C.

L. Fallani, C. Fort, J. E. Lye, and M. Inguscio, “Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with tunable spacing: transport and static properties,” Opt. Express 13, 4303–4313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, G. K.

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gerbier, F.

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greiner, M.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, J.

Gutiérrez-Medina, B.

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T.W.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, C. W.

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

Henderson, K.

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huckans, J. H.

J. H. Huckans, “Optical lattices and quantum degenerate 87Rb in reduced dimensions,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park (2006).

Inguscio, M.

L. Fallani, C. Fort, J. E. Lye, and M. Inguscio, “Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with tunable spacing: transport and static properties,” Opt. Express 13, 4303–4313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jessen, P. S.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kelkar, H.

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, B. E.

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, “Observation of a one-dimensional Tonks-Girardeau gas,” Sceince 305, 1125–1128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Li, T. C.

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

K. D. Nelson, X. Li, and D. S. Weiss, “Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array,” Nature Phys. 3, 556–560 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liang, B.

Liang, W. L.

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lye, J. E.

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maddaloni, P.

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandel, O.

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minardi, F.

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morsch, O.

O. Morsch and M. Oberthaler, “Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 179–215 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murg, V.

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. D.

K. D. Nelson, X. Li, and D. S. Weiss, “Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array,” Nature Phys. 3, 556–560 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oberthaler, M.

O. Morsch and M. Oberthaler, “Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 179–215 (2006).
[Crossref]

Obrecht, J. M.

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Paredes, B.

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peil, S.

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Phillips, W. D.

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

Porto, J. V.

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Raizen, M. G.

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolston, S.

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rolston, S. L.

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Rom, T.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheunemann, R.

R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Shlyapnikov, G. V.

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinitskii, A.

Sivakumar, N. R.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference frings formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smerzi, A.

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subbotin, M.

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference frings formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tolra, B. Laburthe

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trombettoni, A.

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference frings formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. X.

Weiss, D. S.

K. D. Nelson, X. Li, and D. S. Weiss, “Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array,” Nature Phys. 3, 556–560 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, “Observation of a one-dimensional Tonks-Girardeau gas,” Sceince 305, 1125–1128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weitz, M.

R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Wenger, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, “Observation of a one-dimensional Tonks-Girardeau gas,” Sceince 305, 1125–1128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Widera, A

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widera, A.

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, C. J.

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

Xie, X. S.

Zhou, J. Y.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, C. W. Hee, B. Tan, W. L. Liang, and G. K. Gan, “Direct fabrication of surface-relief grating by interferometric technique using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 959–963 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference frings formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A Widera, T. Rom, T.W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Controlled collisions for multi-particle entanglement of optically trapped atoms,” Nature 425, 937–940 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,” Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Paredes, A. Widera, V. Murg, O. Mandel, S. Fölling, I. Cirac, G. V. Shlyapnikov, T. W. Hänsch, and I. Bloch, “Tonks-Girardeau gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice,” Nature 429, 277–281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

K. D. Nelson, X. Li, and D. S. Weiss, “Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array,” Nature Phys. 3, 556–560 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

J. V. Porto, S. Rolston, B. Laburthe Tolra, C. J. Williams, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantum information with neutral atoms as qubits,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 1417–1427 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Peil, J. V. Porto, B. Laburthe Tolra, J. M. Obrecht, B. E. King, M. Subbotin, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, “Patterned loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 051603(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Scheunemann, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Weitz, “Resolving and addressing atoms in individual sites of a CO2-laser optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 051801(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Henderson, H. Kelkar, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, T. C. Li, and M. G. Raizen, “Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Gerbier, S. Fölling, A. Widera, O. Mandel, and I. Bloch, “Probing number squeezing of ultracold atoms across the superfluid-Mott insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 090401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

O. Morsch and M. Oberthaler, “Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 179–215 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sceince (1)

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, “Observation of a one-dimensional Tonks-Girardeau gas,” Sceince 305, 1125–1128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

F. S. Cataliotti, S. Burger, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, F. Minardi, A. Trombettoni, A. Smerzi, and M. Inguscio, “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 293, 843–846 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. H. Huckans, “Optical lattices and quantum degenerate 87Rb in reduced dimensions,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two parallel beams separated by a distance D, produce an optical lattice at the focal plane of the lens. We use an achromatic doublet lens to minimize the aberration of the off-axis beams. The highly curved surface faces the incident parallel beams.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set-up for creating and imaging the optical lattices with real-time control of periodicity. L1, L2 are singlet lenses; P1 is a pinhole; M1 and M2 are mirrors; BS1 and BS2 are polarizing cube beam splitters; and L3 is an achromatic doublet lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The distance between the two parallel beams can be changed by moving M1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a): An optical lattice with spacing of 0.81 µm, recorded by a CCD camera; (b): the lattice periodicity at the focus of a f=30 mm lens as a function of the distance between the two parallel beams. The statistical error of the data is smaller than the size of the squares.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical lattices with spacing of 0.98 µm and 6.20 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Continuous change of the lattice periodicity from 0.96 µm to 11.2 µm, and back to 0.96 µm by moving M1 at different speed: 10 mm/s (a) and 20 mm/s (b). The center fringe (marked by a solid line) moved less than 2.7 µm during the whole process.

Equations (5)

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d λ ( D 2 4 + f 2 ) 1 2 D ,
U + D 2 ( x , y , f ) = exp ( j π D λ f x ) U 0 ( x , y , f ) ,
or U D 2 ( x , y , f ) = exp ( + j π D λ f x ) U 0 ( x , y , f ) .
I ( x , y , f ) = 2 ( cos 2 π D λ f x + 1 ) I 0 ( x , y , f ) ,
d = λ f D .

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