Abstract

Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were used to study trinitrotoluene (TNT) deposited on aluminum substrates. Over the detection wavelength range of 200–785 nm, we have observed emission from CN and C2 molecules as the marker for the explosive with femtosecond LIBS. In contrast, the signal for nanosecond LIBS of TNT is dominated by emission from the elemental constituents of the explosive. Aluminum emission lines from the substrate are also observed with both femtosecond and nanosecond excitation and indicate the role played by the substrate in the interaction.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

C. McEnnis, Y. Dikmelik, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced fragmentation and cluster formation studies of solid phase trinitrotoluene using time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 557–562 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Frischkorn and M. Wolf, “Femtochemistry at metal surfaces: nonadiabatic reaction dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 106, 4207–4233, (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 147–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. B. Lurie and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemiluminescence of CN radicals formed from reaction of nitric oxide with multiphoton electronic excitation photofragments of toluene,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3348–3351 (1980).
[Crossref]

Amodeo, T.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

Angel, S. M.

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

Bar, I.

Barthelemy, O.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baudelet, M.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

Chaker, M.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

De Lucia, Jr., F. C.

Deas, R. M.

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

DeLucia Jr., F.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dikmelik, Y.

C. McEnnis, Y. Dikmelik, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced fragmentation and cluster formation studies of solid phase trinitrotoluene using time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 557–562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eland, K. L.

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

El-Sayed, M. A.

J. B. Lurie and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemiluminescence of CN radicals formed from reaction of nitric oxide with multiphoton electronic excitation photofragments of toluene,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3348–3351 (1980).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frejafon, E.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

Frischkorn, C.

C. Frischkorn and M. Wolf, “Femtochemistry at metal surfaces: nonadiabatic reaction dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 106, 4207–4233, (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gold, D. M.

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

Goode, S. R.

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

Guyon, L.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

Hankin, S. M.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harmon, R. S.

Issac, R. C.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jamison, S.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Johnston, T. W.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. R.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kilic, H. S.

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Kosmidis, C.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Laloi, P.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

Langley, A. J.

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Laserna, J. J.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 147–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

Laville, S.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Le Drogoff, B.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Moreno, C.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lurie, J. B.

J. B. Lurie and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemiluminescence of CN radicals formed from reaction of nitric oxide with multiphoton electronic excitation photofragments of toluene,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3348–3351 (1980).
[Crossref]

Margot, J.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Marshall, A.

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

McCanny, T.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

McEnnis, C.

C. McEnnis, Y. Dikmelik, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced fragmentation and cluster formation studies of solid phase trinitrotoluene using time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 557–562 (2007).
[Crossref]

McKenna, P.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

McNesby, K. L.

Mejean, G.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miziolek, A. W.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. C. De Lucia, Jr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. Winkel, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of energetic materials,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6148–6152 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, “Micromachining,” in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

Palanco, S.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Panne, U.

U. Panne, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in environmental and process analysis,” in Laser in Environmental and Life Sciences, Springer, P. Hering, J. P. Lay, and S. Stry, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004), p. 99.

Portnov, A.

Robson, L.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rohwetter, P.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rose, J.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rosenwaks, S.

Sabsabi, M.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Salmon, E.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shaikh, W.

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Singhal, R. P.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Spicer, J. B.

C. McEnnis, Y. Dikmelik, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced fragmentation and cluster formation studies of solid phase trinitrotoluene using time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 557–562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stratis, D. N.

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

Tasker, A. D.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tzallas, P.

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vadillo, J. M.

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 147–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vidal, F.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

von Kaenel, Y.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walters, R. A.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Whitehouse, A. I.

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Winkel, Jr., R. J.

Wolf, J. P.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

C. Frischkorn and M. Wolf, “Femtochemistry at metal surfaces: nonadiabatic reaction dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 106, 4207–4233, (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woste, L.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Spectral signature of native CN bonds for bacterium detection and identification using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 06390–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 28–6, (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. McEnnis, Y. Dikmelik, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond laser-induced fragmentation and cluster formation studies of solid phase trinitrotoluene using time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 557–562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. Frischkorn and M. Wolf, “Femtochemistry at metal surfaces: nonadiabatic reaction dynamics,” Chem. Rev. 106, 4207–4233, (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (2)

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Lopez-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, F. DeLucia Jr., A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21, 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: a comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08470–1, (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. B. Lurie and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemiluminescence of CN radicals formed from reaction of nitric oxide with multiphoton electronic excitation photofragments of toluene,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3348–3351 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1)

S. M. Hankin, A. D. Tasker, L. Robson, K. W. D. Ledingham, X. Fang, P. McKenna, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, C. Kosmidis, P. Tzallas, D. A. Jaroszynski, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, and S. Jamison, “Femtosecond laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry of labile molecular analytes: laser-desorbed nitro-aromatic molecules,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16, 111–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1)

K. W. D. Ledingham, H. S. Kilic, C. Kosmidis, R. M. Deas, A. Marshall, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, A. J. Langley, and W. Shaikh, “A comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond multiphoton ionization and dissociation for some nitro-molecules,” Rapid. Commun. Mass Spectrom. 9, 1522–1527, (1995).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (2)

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, and Y. von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 147–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Nolte, “Micromachining,” in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

National Institute of Standards and Technology Atomic Spectra Database, http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD.

U. Panne, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in environmental and process analysis,” in Laser in Environmental and Life Sciences, Springer, P. Hering, J. P. Lay, and S. Stry, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004), p. 99.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus used to collect LIBS signals. ICCD: intensified charge-coupled device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nanosecond LIBS signal obtained from TNT on an aluminum substrate. The detection gate delay and width values were 1 µs and 2 µs, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Femtosecond LIBS signal obtained from TNT on an aluminum substrate: (a) over the complete detection wavelength range; (b) expanded view of emission from CN. The detection gate delay and width values were 100 ns and 1 µs, respectively.

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