Abstract

We present a systematic study of Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulators based on carrier-injection. Detailed comparisons between modeling and measurement results are made with good agreement obtained for both DC and AC characteristics. A figure of merit, static VπL, as low as 0.24Vmm is achieved. The effect of carrier lifetime variation with doping concentration is explored and found to be important for the modulator characteristics.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics94, (Springer, New York, 2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, H. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High-speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, G. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide” Opt. Express 15, 660–668 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “Low insertion Loss, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design”, in Technical Digest of Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics, ITuB2, (2006).
  12. S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).
  13. F. X. Kärtner, et al., “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” (Invited) in Technical Digiest of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics, ThC3, (2006).
    [PubMed]
  14. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices. (John Wiley, New York, 1995).
  15. R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison Wesley, 1996), Part IIA.
  16. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (John Wiley, New York, 1981), Chap. 2.
  17. D. J. Roulston, N. D. Arora, and S. G. Chamberlain, “Modeling and measurement of minority-carrier lifetimes versus doping in diffused layers of n+-p silicon diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 961–964 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Assessment of the effective carrier lifetime in a SOI p-i-n diode silicon modulator using the reverse recovery method,” Proc. of SPIE 6477, 647711 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2007 (3)

2005 (3)

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, H. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High-speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. J. Roulston, N. D. Arora, and S. G. Chamberlain, “Modeling and measurement of minority-carrier lifetimes versus doping in diffused layers of n+-p silicon diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 961–964 (1982).
[Crossref]

Arora, N. D.

D. J. Roulston, N. D. Arora, and S. G. Chamberlain, “Modeling and measurement of minority-carrier lifetimes versus doping in diffused layers of n+-p silicon diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 961–964 (1982).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Assessment of the effective carrier lifetime in a SOI p-i-n diode silicon modulator using the reverse recovery method,” Proc. of SPIE 6477, 647711 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chamberlain, S. G.

D. J. Roulston, N. D. Arora, and S. G. Chamberlain, “Modeling and measurement of minority-carrier lifetimes versus doping in diffused layers of n+-p silicon diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 961–964 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices. (John Wiley, New York, 1995).

Ciftcioglu, G.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franck, T.

Gan, F.

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “Low insertion Loss, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design”, in Technical Digest of Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics, ITuB2, (2006).

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Geis, M. W.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Grein, M. E.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Hodge, H.

Izhaky, N.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Kärtner, F. X.

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “Low insertion Loss, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design”, in Technical Digest of Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics, ITuB2, (2006).

F. X. Kärtner, et al., “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” (Invited) in Technical Digiest of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics, ThC3, (2006).
[PubMed]

Keil, U. D.

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
[Crossref]

Lennon, D. E.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

Lockwood, D. J.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics94, (Springer, New York, 2004).
[Crossref]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Manipatruni, S.

Morse, M.

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, G. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide” Opt. Express 15, 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics94, (Springer, New York, 2004).
[Crossref]

Pierret, R. F.

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison Wesley, 1996), Part IIA.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
[Crossref]

Roulston, D. J.

D. J. Roulston, N. D. Arora, and S. G. Chamberlain, “Modeling and measurement of minority-carrier lifetimes versus doping in diffused layers of n+-p silicon diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 961–964 (1982).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, H. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High-speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Schulein, R. T.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Shakya, J.

Smith, B. T.

D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Assessment of the effective carrier lifetime in a SOI p-i-n diode silicon modulator using the reverse recovery method,” Proc. of SPIE 6477, 647711 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (John Wiley, New York, 1981), Chap. 2.

Tang, C. K.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Yoon, J. U.

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

Zheng, D. W.

D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Assessment of the effective carrier lifetime in a SOI p-i-n diode silicon modulator using the reverse recovery method,” Proc. of SPIE 6477, 647711 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

D. J. Roulston, N. D. Arora, and S. G. Chamberlain, “Modeling and measurement of minority-carrier lifetimes versus doping in diffused layers of n+-p silicon diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 961–964 (1982).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. of SPIE (1)

D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Assessment of the effective carrier lifetime in a SOI p-i-n diode silicon modulator using the reverse recovery method,” Proc. of SPIE 6477, 647711 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, Topics in Applied Physics94, (Springer, New York, 2004).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
[Crossref]

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, “Low insertion Loss, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator design”, in Technical Digest of Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics, ITuB2, (2006).

S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. W. Geis, J. U. Yoon, D. E. Lennon, F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Compact carrier injection based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon,” in Technical Digest of 2007 Integrated Photonics Research, ITuE5 (2007).

F. X. Kärtner, et al., “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” (Invited) in Technical Digiest of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics, ThC3, (2006).
[PubMed]

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices. (John Wiley, New York, 1995).

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison Wesley, 1996), Part IIA.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (John Wiley, New York, 1981), Chap. 2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Top-view of Mach-Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator. (b) Schematic cross-sectional view and (c) SEM cross-sectional view of the fabricated SOI waveguide phase shifter with the inset shown as a magnified view of the silicon ridge waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modeled and measured (a) current-voltage characteristics (b) normalized optical transmission-current characteristics for a MZ silicon modulator with 0.25-mm-long phase shifters embedded on both arms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Variation of carrier lifetime as a function of effective carrier concentration and (b) Measured and fitted effective carrier lifetime vary as a function of effective carrier concentration. Measurements, (blue dots); best-fit curve to the empirical model (red) for device #1; model prediction for two additional parameter choices (green and black)..

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for MZI silicon modulator AC frequency response measurement.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Small signal equivalent circuit of the forward biased silicon PiN diode

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Modeled and measured small signal AC characteristics of the Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator with 0.5mm phase shifters.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated magnitude of total AC carrier density at different frequencies for two carrier lifetime choices in Fig. 3 (the left is for lifetime #1 and the right is for lifetime #2). The 2-D carrier distribution graphs at two end frequencies are shown in insets.

Equations (2)

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Normalized S 21 2 Q u 2 = C D ( ω ) 1 + R S G D ( ω ) + j ω R S C D ( ω )
C D = G 0 2 ω ( 1 + ω 2 τ 2 1 ) 1 2 and G D = G 0 2 ( 1 + ω 2 τ 2 + 1 ) 1 2

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