Abstract

Silicon light source plays a key role in silicon optoelectronics, but its realization is an extremely challenging task. Although there are long-term intensive efforts to this topic, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the silicon-based electroluminescence is still no more than 1%. In this present report, a highly efficient silicon light source has been achieved. The device structure is p-Si (5 Ωcm)/ SiO2(~2nm)/NPB/CBP: (ppy)2Ir(acac)/Bphen/Bphen: Cs2CO3/Sm/Au. The SiO2 passivated Si is the anode having a suitably high hole-injection ability, and CBP: (ppy)2Ir(acac) is a highly efficient phosphor doped organic material. The device turn-on voltage is 3.2 V. The maximum luminance efficiency and maximum luminous power efficiency reach 69 cd/A and 62 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to a maximum PCE of 12% and an external quantum efficiency of 17%.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, "High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type Si anodes," Opt. Express 15, 14644-14649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1233-1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, "Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, "Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes," J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 086107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Md. K. Nazeeruddin, R. Humphry-Baker, D. Berner, S. Rivier, L. Zuppiroli, and M. Graetzel, "Highly phosphorescence iridium complexes and their application in organic light-emitting devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 8790-8797 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

P. Ball "Let there be light," Nature 409, 974-976 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805-808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B. Gelloza and N. Koshida, "Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, "Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence.II. transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10967-10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson, and K. P. Homewood, "Asilicon/iron-disilicide lightemitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5μm," Nature 387, 686-688 (1997)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, "The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 909-965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, "Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1774-1776 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, "Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1774-1776 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, "Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films," J. Appl. Phys 58, 2696-2703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, "1.54μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 943-945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, "Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence.II. transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10967-10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allison, B. H.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Axmann, A.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, "1.54μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 943-945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, "Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence.II. transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10967-10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ball, P.

P. Ball "Let there be light," Nature 409, 974-976 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bongiorno, C.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bost, M. C.

M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, "Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films," J. Appl. Phys 58, 2696-2703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Calcott, P. D. J.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, "The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 909-965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, "The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 909-965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caristia, L.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Castagna, M. E.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, M.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, "Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-F.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, "Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. M.

Chen, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, "Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. X.

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chua, T.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, "Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coffa, S.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, "The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 909-965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cutro, J. A.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiMaria, D. J.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X. M.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dong, D. W.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ebner, J.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ennen, H.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, "1.54μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 943-945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, P.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, "Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence.II. transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10967-10977 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gal, M.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805-808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelloza, B.

B. Gelloza and N. Koshida, "Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goser, K. F.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805-808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grozea, D.

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, "Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes," J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 086107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R. M.

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, "Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes," J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 086107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harry, M.

D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson, and K. P. Homewood, "Asilicon/iron-disilicide lightemitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5μm," Nature 387, 686-688 (1997)
[CrossRef]

He, J.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, L. M. H.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helen, I. D.

I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, "Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1774-1776 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hilleringmann, U.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Homewood, K. P.

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson, and K. P. Homewood, "Asilicon/iron-disilicide lightemitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5μm," Nature 387, 686-688 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Hou, X. Y.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. J.

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, "Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes," J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 086107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hufford, M.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D.-H.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. H.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. O.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kirtley, J. R.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Koshida, N.

B. Gelloza and N. Koshida, "Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4319-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, T. S.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kwock, E. W.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ledain, S.

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lek Ng, W.

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1233-1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, D.

D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson, and K. P. Homewood, "Asilicon/iron-disilicide lightemitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5μm," Nature 387, 686-688 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Levy, G. B.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lian, J. R.

Liao, L. S.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lourenco, M. A.

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, "Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes," J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 086107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. L.

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Maennig, B.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1233-1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahan, J. E.

M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, "Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films," J. Appl. Phys 58, 2696-2703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mangano, R.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Messina, A.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, M.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, "Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon," Physica E 16,547-553 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Morris, M. D.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naviasky, E.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pakulis, E. J.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Parker, I. D.

I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, "Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1774-1776 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, F. L.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1233-1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomrenke, G.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, "1.54μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 943-945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prache, O.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Y. P.

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. G.

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ran, G. Z.

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Reece, P. J.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805-808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeson, K. J.

D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson, and K. P. Homewood, "Asilicon/iron-disilicide lightemitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5μm," Nature 387, 686-688 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, "1.54μm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 943-945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shao, G.

W. Lek Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stern, R.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, A. Holmes, D.-H. Hwang, and R. Stern, "CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1249-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, "Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, F. G.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Theis, T. N.

D. J. DiMaria, J. R. Kirtley, E. J. Pakulis, D. W. Dong, T. S. Kuan, F. L. Pesavento, T. N. Theis, J. A. Cutro, and S. D. Brorson, "Electroluminescence studies in silicon dioxide films containing tiny silicon islands," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 401-416 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Turak, A.

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, "Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes," J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 086107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, "Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1233-1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805-808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwick, E. H.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo. "Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2107-2113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, D.

G. B. Levy, W. Evans, J. Ebner, P. Farrell, M. Hufford, B. H. Allison, D. Wheeler, H. Lin, O. Prache, and E. Naviasky, "An 852 600 Pixel OLED-on-silicon color microdisplay using CMOS subthreshold-voltage-scaling current drivers," IEEE J. Solid-state circuits 37, 1879-1889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. K.

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z. H.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, A. G.

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. H.

G. Z. Ran, Y. H. Xu, G. L. Ma, A. G. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, and G. G. Qin, "Organic light-emitting diodes with n-type silicon anode," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 761-764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, A. G. Xu, Y. H. Xu, Y. P. Qiao, W. X. Chen, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, "Improving charge-injection balance and cathode transmittance of top-emitting organic light-emitting device with p-type silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. B.

Zhang, B. R.

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, "A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5406-5408(2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805-808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C. E.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, "High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type Si anodes," Opt. Express 15, 14644-14649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, "Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 609-611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A schematic configuration of the Si-PhOLED (b) the normalized top-emission electroluminescence spectra for the Si-PhOLED at 1, 100 and 10000 cd/m2. For clarity, some curves have been shifted vertically. (c) The dependence of the electroluminescence intensity on the observation angle

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The schematic flat-band energy diagram for Si-PhOLED, and the dot line is for the guest material (ppy)2Ir(acac) within CBP.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The current density versus voltage characteristics and (b) luminance versus voltage characteristics for the Si-PhOLED and the ITO-PhOLED.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The luminance efficiency versus voltage and (b) the luminous power efficiency versus voltage characteristics for the Si-PhOLED and the ITO-PhOLED. The inset is the PCE and EQE for the Si-PhOLED as functions of driving voltage.

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