Abstract

We present the design of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber for a 180◦-bend fiber socket application, including a tolerance analysis for manufacturability. To this aim, we make use of statistical design methodology, combined with a fully vectorial mode solver. Two resulting designs are presented and their performance in terms of bending loss, coupling loss to Corning SMF-28 standard telecom fiber, and cut-off wavelength is calculated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fibre access systems?," B T Technol. J. 20, 104-114 (2002).
  2. K. Himeno, S. Matsuo, N. Guan, and A. Wada, "Low-bending-loss single-mode fibers for fiber-to-the-home," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3494-3499 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses," Opt. Express 13, 4770-4779 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Guan,  et al., "Holey fibers for low bending loss," IEICE Trans. Electron. E89, 191-196 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).
  7. D. C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 5th ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001).
  8. T. J. Santner, B. J. Williams, and W. I. Notz, The Design and Analysis of Computer Experiment (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  9. J. Van Erps,  et al., "Mass manufacturable 180◦-bend single mode fiber socket using hole-assisted low bending loss fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 187-189 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. LumericalMODE  Solutions™, http://www.lumerical.com/mode.php.
  11. H. R. D. Sunak and S. P. Bastien, "Refractive index and material dispersion of doped silica in the 0.6-1.8um wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 142-145 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671-679 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Corning HPFS® Standard Grade, http://www.corning.com/docs/specialtymaterials/pisheets/H0607 hpfs Standard ProductSheet.pdf.
  14. J. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Computational Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).
  17. J. D. Love and C. Durniak, "Bend loss, tapering, and cladding-mode coupling in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 191257-1259 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, "The design of multifactorial experiments," Biometrika 33, 305-325 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. E. P. Box and D.W. Behnken, "Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables," Technometrics 2, 455-476 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Minitab Statistical Software, http://www.minitab.com/products/minitab/.
  21. G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, and J. S. Hunter, Statistics for experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis and Model Building (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978).
  22. I. M. Sobol, A Primer for the Monte Carlo Method (CRC Press, 1994).
  23. Crystal ball predictive modeling software, http://www.crystalball.com/cbpro/index.html.
  24. T. Martynkien, J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Experimental investigations of bending loss oscillations in large mode area photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 15, 13547-13556 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Nakajima,  et al., "Cutoff wavelength measurement in a fiber with improved bending loss," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1918-1920 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008

J. Van Erps,  et al., "Mass manufacturable 180◦-bend single mode fiber socket using hole-assisted low bending loss fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 187-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and C. Durniak, "Bend loss, tapering, and cladding-mode coupling in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 191257-1259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Experimental investigations of bending loss oscillations in large mode area photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 15, 13547-13556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. Guan,  et al., "Holey fibers for low bending loss," IEICE Trans. Electron. E89, 191-196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

K. Nakajima,  et al., "Cutoff wavelength measurement in a fiber with improved bending loss," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1918-1920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fibre access systems?," B T Technol. J. 20, 104-114 (2002).

1997

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Computational Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. R. D. Sunak and S. P. Bastien, "Refractive index and material dispersion of doped silica in the 0.6-1.8um wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 142-145 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1960

G. E. P. Box and D.W. Behnken, "Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables," Technometrics 2, 455-476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1946

R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, "The design of multifactorial experiments," Biometrika 33, 305-325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Bastien, S. P.

H. R. D. Sunak and S. P. Bastien, "Refractive index and material dispersion of doped silica in the 0.6-1.8um wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 142-145 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Behnken, D.W.

G. E. P. Box and D.W. Behnken, "Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables," Technometrics 2, 455-476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J.

J. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Computational Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

Bing, Y.

Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).

Box, G. E. P.

G. E. P. Box and D.W. Behnken, "Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables," Technometrics 2, 455-476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Burman, J. P.

R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, "The design of multifactorial experiments," Biometrika 33, 305-325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Davey, R. P.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fibre access systems?," B T Technol. J. 20, 104-114 (2002).

Durniak, C.

J. D. Love and C. Durniak, "Bend loss, tapering, and cladding-mode coupling in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 191257-1259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faustini, L.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golojuch, G.

Guan, N.

Himeno, K.

Hogari, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kumagai, T.

Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).

Kurosawa, Y.

Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love and C. Durniak, "Bend loss, tapering, and cladding-mode coupling in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 191257-1259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martini, G.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

Matsuo, S.

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima,  et al., "Cutoff wavelength measurement in a fiber with improved bending loss," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1918-1920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

Olszewski, J.

Oshono, K.

Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).

Payne, D. B.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fibre access systems?," B T Technol. J. 20, 104-114 (2002).

Plackett, R. L.

R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, "The design of multifactorial experiments," Biometrika 33, 305-325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sankawa, I.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sunak, H. R. D.

H. R. D. Sunak and S. P. Bastien, "Refractive index and material dispersion of doped silica in the 0.6-1.8um wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 142-145 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Szpulak, M.

Tachikura, M.

Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).

Tajima, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Tsuchida, Y.

Urbanczyk, W.

Van Erps, J.

J. Van Erps,  et al., "Mass manufacturable 180◦-bend single mode fiber socket using hole-assisted low bending loss fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 187-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

Webb, A. S.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B T Technol. J.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The future of fibre access systems?," B T Technol. J. 20, 104-114 (2002).

Biometrika

R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, "The design of multifactorial experiments," Biometrika 33, 305-325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Hitachi Cable Review

Y. Bing, K. Oshono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, and M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Review 24, 1-4 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Van Erps,  et al., "Mass manufacturable 180◦-bend single mode fiber socket using hole-assisted low bending loss fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 187-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. R. D. Sunak and S. P. Bastien, "Refractive index and material dispersion of doped silica in the 0.6-1.8um wavelength region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 142-145 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima,  et al., "Cutoff wavelength measurement in a fiber with improved bending loss," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1918-1920 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and C. Durniak, "Bend loss, tapering, and cladding-mode coupling in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 191257-1259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

N. Guan,  et al., "Holey fibers for low bending loss," IEICE Trans. Electron. E89, 191-196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Computational Phys.

J. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Computational Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Eng.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Technometrics

G. E. P. Box and D.W. Behnken, "Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables," Technometrics 2, 455-476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other

Minitab Statistical Software, http://www.minitab.com/products/minitab/.

G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, and J. S. Hunter, Statistics for experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis and Model Building (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978).

I. M. Sobol, A Primer for the Monte Carlo Method (CRC Press, 1994).

Crystal ball predictive modeling software, http://www.crystalball.com/cbpro/index.html.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).

Corning HPFS® Standard Grade, http://www.corning.com/docs/specialtymaterials/pisheets/H0607 hpfs Standard ProductSheet.pdf.

LumericalMODE  Solutions™, http://www.lumerical.com/mode.php.

D. C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 5th ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001).

T. J. Santner, B. J. Williams, and W. I. Notz, The Design and Analysis of Computer Experiment (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

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