Abstract

Hollow-core photonic-bandgap fibers provide a new geometry for the realization and enhancement of many nonlinear optical effects. Such fibers offer novel guidance and dispersion properties that provide an advantage over conventional fibers for various applications. In this review we summarize the nonlinear optics experiments that have been performed using these hollow-core fibers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (11)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, "Generation and photonic guidance of multioctave optical-frequency combs," Science 318, 1118-1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Ionization-induced blueshift of high-peak-power guided-wave ultrashort laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, "Saturated optical absorption by slow molecules in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Takekoshi and R. J. Knize, "Optical guiding of atoms through a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 210404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hensley, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3507-3512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3507.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, F. Couny, M. Maric, and A. N. Luiten, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in Rb-filled coated hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 1323-1325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Express 15, 6690-6695 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6690.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gerome, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, "Delivery of sub-100 fs pulses through 8 m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression," Opt. Express 15, 7126-7131 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7126.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers and fiber lasers (Invited)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1661-1668 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortac¸, M. Plotner, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, "Experimental and numerical study of pulse dynamics in positive net-cavity dispersion modelocked Yb-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Express 1515595-15602 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15595.
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O. L. Weaver, and K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2491 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (11)

T. Chaneliere, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S. -Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature (London) 438, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-cw pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-236.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 13, 3460-3464 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3460.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, A. M. Zheltikov, and R. B. Miles, "Phase-matched four-wave mixing and sensing of water molecules by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2049-2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Fenabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5694.
[CrossRef]

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6153.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10475-10482 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10475.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature (London) 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lynga, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini and K. C. Kulander, "Enhanced high harmonic generation from an optically prepared excited medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113906 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

E. E. Serebryannikov, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, " Phase-matching solutions for high-order harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E,  70, 066619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-835.
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H. Lim and F. W. Wise, "Control of dispersion in a femtosecond ytterbium laser by use of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 2231-2235 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2231.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Konorov, A. M. Zheltikov, P. Zhou, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Self-channeling of subgigawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a ground-state waveguide induced in the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 1521-1523 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, "Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelberg, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 430, 654-657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Fedotov, S. O. Konorov, V. P. Mitrokhin, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 045802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, A. L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, "Self-similar optical wave collapse: Observation of the Townes profile," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: Trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).
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P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
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C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature (London) 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Enhanced four-wave mixing in a hollow-core photoniccrystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 1448-1450 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-21-1195.
[PubMed]

H. Lim, F. O. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, "Femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with photonic crystal fiber for dispersion control," Opt. Express 10, 1497-1502 (2002). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-25-1497.
[PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, "Absolute line intensities in acetylene: The 1.5-μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, "Nonlinear optics at low light levels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611-4614 (1999).
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R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
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1994 (2)

A. A. Maradudin and A. R. McGurn, "Out of plane propagation of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric medium," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 275-284 (1994).
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T. Abel, J. Hirsch, and J. A. Harrington, "Hollow glass waveguides for broadband infrared transmission," Opt. Lett. 19, 1034-1036 (1994).
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1993 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Photonic band-gap structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 283-295 (1993).
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P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
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1992 (1)

P. R. Villeneuve and M. Piche, "Photonic band gaps in two-dimensional square and hexagonal lattices," Phys. Rev. B 46, 4969-4972 (1992).
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1991 (2)

K. -J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991).
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A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Higher-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: The role of phase matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200-2203 (1991).
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1987 (3)

J. C. Camparo, "Alkali hI·Si wall relaxation in dichlorodimethylsilane coated resonance cells," J. Chem. Phys. 86, 1533-1539 (1987).
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E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
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S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486- 2489 (1987).
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1986 (1)

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, "Experimental observation of optically trapped atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314-317 (1986).
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1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, "Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
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1976 (1)

P. Yeh and A. Yariv, "Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Commun. 19, 427-430 (1976).
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1973 (1)

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, "Transmission of stationary nonlinear optical pulses in dispersive dielectric fibers. I. Anomalous dispersion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142-144 (1973).
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1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
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1967 (1)

N. F. Mott, "Electrons in disordered structures," Adv. Phys. 16, 49-144 (1967).
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1966 (1)

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, "Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls," Phys. Rev. 147, 41-54 (1966).
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1958 (1)

P. W. Anderson, "Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492-1505 (1958).
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Abel, T.

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature (London) 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
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Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, "Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492-1505 (1958).
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Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-cw pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, "Experimental observation of optically trapped atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314-317 (1986).
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A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
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Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
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Benabid, F.

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, F. Couny, M. Maric, and A. N. Luiten, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in Rb-filled coated hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 1323-1325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, "Generation and photonic guidance of multioctave optical-frequency combs," Science 318, 1118-1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
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F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-cw pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, "Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-21-1195.
[PubMed]

Bhagwat, A. R.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-236.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
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Birnbaum, K. M.

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature (London) 436, 87-90 (2005).
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Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, "Experimental observation of optically trapped atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314-317 (1986).
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Boca, A.

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature (London) 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boller, K. -J.

K. -J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boozer, A. D.

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature (London) 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature (London) 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchiat, M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, "Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls," Phys. Rev. 147, 41-54 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, "Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broaddus, D. H.

Brossel, J.

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, "Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls," Phys. Rev. 147, 41-54 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, "Experimental observation of optically trapped atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314-317 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camparo, J. C.

J. C. Camparo, "Alkali hI·Si wall relaxation in dichlorodimethylsilane coated resonance cells," J. Chem. Phys. 86, 1533-1539 (1987).
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Campbell, S.

Chaneliere, T.

T. Chaneliere, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S. -Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature (London) 438, 833-836 (2005).
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Chong, A.

Chu, S.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, "Experimental observation of optically trapped atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314-317 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clatterbuck, T. O.

P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lynga, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini and K. C. Kulander, "Enhanced high harmonic generation from an optically prepared excited medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113906 (2005).
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Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, F. Couny, M. Maric, and A. N. Luiten, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in Rb-filled coated hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 1323-1325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, "Generation and photonic guidance of multioctave optical-frequency combs," Science 318, 1118-1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on 12C2H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Fenabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5694.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-236.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, "Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Hachtouki, R.

R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, "Absolute line intensities in acetylene: The 1.5-μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355-362 (2002).
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Erickson, D.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
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Faheem, M.

Farr, L.

Fedotov, A. B.

A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Ionization-induced blueshift of high-peak-power guided-wave ultrashort laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053811 (2007).
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S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, A. M. Zheltikov, and R. B. Miles, "Phase-matched four-wave mixing and sensing of water molecules by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2049-2053 (2005).
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A. B. Fedotov, S. O. Konorov, V. P. Mitrokhin, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 045802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Enhanced four-wave mixing in a hollow-core photoniccrystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 1448-1450 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenabid, F.

Fibich, G.

K. D. Moll, A. L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, "Self-similar optical wave collapse: Observation of the Townes profile," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floris van Driel, A.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelberg, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 430, 654-657 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

C. J. Hensley, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3507-3512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3507.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Express 15, 6690-6695 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6690.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6153.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, A. L. Gaeta, and G. Fibich, "Self-similar optical wave collapse: Observation of the Townes profile," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 203902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

C. J. Hensley, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3507-3512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3507.
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-21-1195.
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P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelberg, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 430, 654-657 (2004).
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Renshaw, C. K.

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F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, "Generation and photonic guidance of multioctave optical-frequency combs," Science 318, 1118-1121 (2007).
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F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-cw pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213903 (2005).
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F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-835.
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F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, "Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-21-1195.
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Schafer, K. J.

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A. B. Fedotov, S. O. Konorov, V. P. Mitrokhin, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 045802 (2004).
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Sharping, J. E.

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D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
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Tunnermann, A.

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R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, "Absolute line intensities in acetylene: The 1.5-μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355-362 (2002).
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P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelberg, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 430, 654-657 (2004).
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C. J. Hensley, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3507-3512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3507.
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C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature (London) 424, 657-659 (2003).
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D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
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P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelberg, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 430, 654-657 (2004).
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F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-21-1195.
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F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-835.
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C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Express 15, 6690-6695 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6690.
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F. Gerome, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, "Delivery of sub-100 fs pulses through 8 m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression," Opt. Express 15, 7126-7131 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7126.
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F. Fenabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, "Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5694.
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D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6153.
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J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Petersen, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10475-10482 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10475.
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P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-1-236.
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H. Lim, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 13, 3460-3464 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3460.
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C. J. Hensley, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3507-3512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3507.
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A. B. Fedotov, S. O. Konorov, V. P. Mitrokhin, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 045802 (2004).
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E. E. Serebryannikov, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, " Phase-matching solutions for high-order harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E,  70, 066619 (2004).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sections of some hollow-core fibers. (a) The first fiber to demonstrate single-mode air guidance (Univ. of Bath) [17] (b) Low-loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (Corning Inc.) [18].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra showing evidence of stimulated Raman scattering in hollow-core fibers. Shown here is the pump at 532 nm, and with increasing pump powers, a Stokes line appears at 683 nm. At higher powers an anti-Stokes peak at 435 nm can also be seen [21].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Vibrational Raman spectra generated in H2 with a comb spacing of 125 THz due to linearly polarized pump with the corresponding camera image of generated light viewed through a dispersive element. (b) Rotational and vibrational spectra due to circularly polarized pump showing comb lines separated by 18 GHz [24].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimentally measured dispersion parameter D is positive over most of the bandgap, indicating that the dispersion is anomalous [32].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) After propagation through 2 m of hollow-core fiber filled with Xe gas, the input and output pulses are essentially identical in time demonstrating soliton propagation over ~30 dispersion lengths. (b) The corresponding spectra which shows pulse spectrum before and after it passed through the fiber which indicates the absence of Raman-induced red shift [32].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured autocorrelation traces for the input and output pulses for various input pulse energies which shows pulse compression. Pulse splitting is observed at the highest pulse energies. (b) Measured pulse widths plotted as a function of output pulse energy [34].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Absorption spectra for acetylene in Ref. [50] with theoretical fit. Energy level diagram shows levels used for EIT and (b) First demonstration of EIT in acetylene molecules. (c) Absorption spectra for acetylene in Ref. [52] and (d) corresponding EIT at higher powers.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Absorption of Rb as measured through the fiber. After turning on the desorption beam, the absorption profile implies the generation of a very large atomic population. (b) EIT generated by a 361 nW control beam. Inset shows EIT in presence of optical pumping [60].

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) The particle in a diverging beam experiences a force towards the higher intensity region and (b) The force experienced by the particle at various distances from the fiber face. Solid circles represent experimental data while the solid curve denotes the calculated force from theory [64].

Equations (2)

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d m s d z = A m p ( m s + 1 )
P sol = β 2 λ A e f f 2 π n 2 τ p 2

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