Abstract

We demonstrate compact waveguide splitter networks in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguides using trench-based splitters (TBSs) and bends (TBBs). Rather than a 90° geometry, we use 105° TBSs to facilitate reliable fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches suitable for 50/50 splitting when filled with SU8. Three dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation is used for splitter and bend design. Measured TBB and TBS optical efficiencies are 84% and 68%, respectively. Compact 105° 1×4, 1×8, and 1×32 trench-based splitter networks (TBSNs) are demonstrated. The measured total optical loss of the 1×32 TBSN is 9.15 dB. Its size is only 700 µm×1600 µm for an output waveguide spacing of 50 µm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (1)

2007 (3)

Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact 90° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 16712-16718 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Nordin, J. W. Noh, and S. Kim, "In-plane photonic transduction for microcantilever sensor arrays," SPIE 6447, 64470J (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, "Field-matching Y-branch for low loss power splitter," Opt. Commun. 248, 423-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Bouda, J. W. M. van Uffelen, C. van Dam, and B. H. Verbeek, "Compact 1×16 power splitter based on symmetrical 1×2MMI splitters," Electron. Lett. 21, 1756-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baller, M. K.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouda, M.

M. Bouda, J. W. M. van Uffelen, C. van Dam, and B. H. Verbeek, "Compact 1×16 power splitter based on symmetrical 1×2MMI splitters," Electron. Lett. 21, 1756-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cai, J.

Cleary, A.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cote, R. J.

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Datar, R. H.

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, B. W.

Eijkel, J. C. T.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enomoto, Y.

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, J.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumitsu, T.

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamet, J.

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, "Field-matching Y-branch for low loss power splitter," Opt. Commun. 248, 423-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Blanco, S.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, C.

F. Huber, M. Hegner, C. Gerber, H. J. Guntherodt, and H. P. Lang, "Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron 21,1599-1605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, Ch.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gimzewski, J. K.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glidle, A.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guntherodt, H. J.

F. Huber, M. Hegner, C. Gerber, H. J. Guntherodt, and H. P. Lang, "Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron 21,1599-1605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanawa, F.

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, K. M.

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hegner, M.

F. Huber, M. Hegner, C. Gerber, H. J. Guntherodt, and H. P. Lang, "Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron 21,1599-1605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hida, Y.

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huber, F.

F. Huber, M. Hegner, C. Gerber, H. J. Guntherodt, and H. P. Lang, "Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron 21,1599-1605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, S.

Kutter, J. P.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, Y. C.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, H. P.

F. Huber, M. Hegner, C. Gerber, H. J. Guntherodt, and H. P. Lang, "Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron 21,1599-1605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laybourn, P.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Majumdar, A.

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, A.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, E.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mogensen, K. B.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moyer, P. J.

Nakagome, H.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noh, J. W.

G. P. Nordin, J. W. Noh, and S. Kim, "In-plane photonic transduction for microcantilever sensor arrays," SPIE 6447, 64470J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Pandraud, G.

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, "Field-matching Y-branch for low loss power splitter," Opt. Commun. 248, 423-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, N. J.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, Y.

Rahmanian, N.

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothuizen, H.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saida, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamaki, Y.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Takahashi, H.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dam, C.

M. Bouda, J. W. M. van Uffelen, C. van Dam, and B. H. Verbeek, "Compact 1×16 power splitter based on symmetrical 1×2MMI splitters," Electron. Lett. 21, 1756-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

M. Bouda, J. W. M. van Uffelen, C. van Dam, and B. H. Verbeek, "Compact 1×16 power splitter based on symmetrical 1×2MMI splitters," Electron. Lett. 21, 1756-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

M. Bouda, J. W. M. van Uffelen, C. van Dam, and B. H. Verbeek, "Compact 1×16 power splitter based on symmetrical 1×2MMI splitters," Electron. Lett. 21, 1756-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vettiger, P.

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, G.

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Peterson, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A microfluidic device with an integrated waveguide beam splitter for velocity measurements of flowing particles by Fourier transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron (1)

F. Huber, M. Hegner, C. Gerber, H. J. Guntherodt, and H. P. Lang, "Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays," Biosens. Bioelectron 21,1599-1605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, "Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1 × 32 splitter," Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bouda, J. W. M. van Uffelen, C. van Dam, and B. H. Verbeek, "Compact 1×16 power splitter based on symmetrical 1×2MMI splitters," Electron. Lett. 21, 1756-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Hida and Y. Inoue, F. Hanawa, T. Fukumitsu, Y. Enomoto, and N. Takato, "Silica-based 1×32 splitter integrated with 32 WDM couplersusing multilayered dielectric filters for fiber line testing at 1.65μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 96-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, "An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1315-1320 (2005).
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J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
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J. H. Kim, B. W. Dudley, and P. J. Moyer, "Experimental demonstration of replicated multimode interferometer power splitter in Zr-doped sol-gel," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 612-616 (2006).
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Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, "High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1728-1735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

G. Wu, R. H. Datar, K. M. Hansen, T. Thundat, R. J. Cote, and A. Majumdar, "Bioassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using microcantilevers," Nat. Biotechnol. 19,856-860 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, "Field-matching Y-branch for low loss power splitter," Opt. Commun. 248, 423-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Science (1)

J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H. J. Guntherodt, Ch. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechanics," Science 288,316-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. P. Nordin, J. W. Noh, and S. Kim, "In-plane photonic transduction for microcantilever sensor arrays," SPIE 6447, 64470J (2007).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Rib waveguide cross section. (b) 105° TBB and (c) TBS geometry (i.e., α12=105° and θ12=37.5°). (d) Required trench width for 50/50 splitting using SU8 filled TBSs (right axis) and total splitter efficiency (left axis) as a function of splitter bend angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Magnitude of the time-averaged magnetic field for (a) 105° TBS and (b) 105° TBB.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured loss of 105° TBB as a function of number of bends in a set of equal-length waveguides. The average error for each data point is +/-0.09 dB. The insertion loss is ~37 dB, with almost all of this (~36 dB) due to the fiber/waveguide mode mismatch in getting light on and off chip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). SEM image of a fabricated 1×2 network before SU8 spin coating. The separation between transmission and reflection waveguides is 50 µm. (b) Measurement and 3D FDTD simulation results for 105° TBS splitting ratio as a function of trench width. (c) Cross sectional SEM image of a cleaved trench.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Microscope image and (b) 1D output fiber scan of SU8 coated 1×4 105° TBSN.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Microscope image of SU8 coated 1×32 TBSN and corresponding (b) IR camera image of output waveguides and (c) fiber-based output waveguide power measurement as a function of output waveguide number.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured and calculated 1×N network total loss as a function of number of network layers (bottom axis) and network outputs (top axis) (see text for details).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ 2 = 90 ° α 2 2 ,
η TBS = P TBS _ reflection η TBB + P TBS _ transmission P Straight _ waveguide
L calc = 10 * log ( ( η 2 2 + η 2 ) M )
L meas = 10 * log ( P 1 × N network P straight waveguide )

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