Abstract

Optically injection-locked single-wavelength gain-switching VCSEL based all-optical converter is demonstrated to generate RZ data at 2.5 Gbit/s with bit-error-rate of 10-9 under receiving power of -29.3 dBm. A modified rate equation model is established to elucidate the optical injection induced gain-switching and NRZ-to-RZ data conversion in the VCSEL. The peak-to-peak frequency chirp of the VCSEL based NRZ-to-RZ is 4.5 GHz associated with a reduced frequency chirp rate of 178 MHz/ps at input optical NRZ power of -21 dBm, which is almost decreasing by a factor of 1/3 comparing with chirp on the SOA based NRZ-to-RZ converter reported previously. The power penalty of the BER measured back-to-back is about 2 dB from 1 Gbit/s to 2.5 Gbit/s.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Li and K. Iga, "Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Devices," (Berlin, New York, Springer, 2003), Chaps. 2, 3.
  2. T. Fishman and A. Hardy, "Injection- locking analysis of vertical-cavity laser arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 38-45 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fishman and A. Hardy, "Effect of spatial hole burning on injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays," Appl. Opt. 39, 3108-3114 (2000).
  4. J. Y. Law, G. H. M. van Tartwijk, and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of transverse-mode competition on the injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Quantum Semiclasic. Opt. 9, 737-47 (1997).
  5. H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).
  6. D. L. Boiko, G. M. Stephan, and P. Besnard, "Fast polarization switching with memory effect in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to modulated optical injection," J. of Appl. Phys. 86, 4096-4099 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Onishi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, F. Koyama, and C. E. Zah, "Optical Inverter using a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with External Light Injection," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, (2003).
  8. L. Li, "A unified description of semiconductor lasers with external light injection and its application to optical bistability," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723-1726 (1994).
  9. K. Hasebe and F. Koyama, "Modeling of all-optical-signal processing devices based on two-mode injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6697-6703 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition," Opt. Express 12, 4449-4456 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Norte and A. E. Willner, "Demonstration of an all-optical data format transparent WDM-to-TDM network node with extinction ratio enhancement for reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 715-717 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and C.-S. Park, "Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop-mirror," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 834-841 (2005).
  13. L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).
  14. A. Reale, P. Lugli, and S. Betti, "Format conversion of optical data using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 703-709 (2001).
  15. G.-R. Lin, K.-C. Yu, and Y.-C. Chang, "10 Gbit/s all-optical non-return-to-zero to return-to-zero data format conversion based on a backward dark-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 1376-1378 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, "Amplification and compression of weak picosecond optical pulses bu using semiconductor laser amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 14, 500-502 (1989).
  17. N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).
  18. G.-R. Lin, C.-L. Pan, and K.-C. Yu, "Dynamic chirp control of all-optical format-converted pulsed data from a multi-wavelength inverse-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Express 15, 13330-13339 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976-983 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Li, "Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1701-1708 (1994).
  21. R. Hui, S. Benedetto, I. Monitrosset, "Optical bistability in diode-laser amplifiers and injection-locked laser diodes," Opt. Lett. 18, 287-289 (1993).
  22. K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988, (corrected 1991).
  23. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 21, pp. 784-793, 1985.
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, "Dynamics of optically switched bistable diode laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 303-308 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

G.-R. Lin, K.-C. Yu, and Y.-C. Chang, "10 Gbit/s all-optical non-return-to-zero to return-to-zero data format conversion based on a backward dark-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 1376-1378 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hasebe and F. Koyama, "Modeling of all-optical-signal processing devices based on two-mode injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6697-6703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).

2001

A. Reale, P. Lugli, and S. Betti, "Format conversion of optical data using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 703-709 (2001).

2000

1999

T. Fishman and A. Hardy, "Injection- locking analysis of vertical-cavity laser arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 38-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Boiko, G. M. Stephan, and P. Besnard, "Fast polarization switching with memory effect in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to modulated optical injection," J. of Appl. Phys. 86, 4096-4099 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Y. Law, G. H. M. van Tartwijk, and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of transverse-mode competition on the injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Quantum Semiclasic. Opt. 9, 737-47 (1997).

1996

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

D. Norte and A. E. Willner, "Demonstration of an all-optical data format transparent WDM-to-TDM network node with extinction ratio enhancement for reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 715-717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. Li, "Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1701-1708 (1994).

L. Li, "A unified description of semiconductor lasers with external light injection and its application to optical bistability," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723-1726 (1994).

1993

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

R. Hui, S. Benedetto, I. Monitrosset, "Optical bistability in diode-laser amplifiers and injection-locked laser diodes," Opt. Lett. 18, 287-289 (1993).

1991

R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, "Dynamics of optically switched bistable diode laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 303-308 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 21, pp. 784-793, 1985.
[CrossRef]

1982

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976-983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

J. Y. Law, G. H. M. van Tartwijk, and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of transverse-mode competition on the injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Quantum Semiclasic. Opt. 9, 737-47 (1997).

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, "Amplification and compression of weak picosecond optical pulses bu using semiconductor laser amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 14, 500-502 (1989).

Baby, B.C.

L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).

Benedetto, S.

Besnard, P.

D. L. Boiko, G. M. Stephan, and P. Besnard, "Fast polarization switching with memory effect in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to modulated optical injection," J. of Appl. Phys. 86, 4096-4099 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betti, S.

A. Reale, P. Lugli, and S. Betti, "Format conversion of optical data using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 703-709 (2001).

Boiko, D. L.

D. L. Boiko, G. M. Stephan, and P. Besnard, "Fast polarization switching with memory effect in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to modulated optical injection," J. of Appl. Phys. 86, 4096-4099 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, J. H.

D’Ottavi, A.

R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, "Dynamics of optically switched bistable diode laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 303-308 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, T.

Glesk, V.

L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).

Hardy, A.

Hasebe, K.

K. Hasebe and F. Koyama, "Modeling of all-optical-signal processing devices based on two-mode injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6697-6703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, S. Benedetto, I. Monitrosset, "Optical bistability in diode-laser amplifiers and injection-locked laser diodes," Opt. Lett. 18, 287-289 (1993).

R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, G.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 21, pp. 784-793, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Koyama, F.

K. Hasebe and F. Koyama, "Modeling of all-optical-signal processing devices based on two-mode injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6697-6703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976-983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Law, J. Y.

J. Y. Law, G. H. M. van Tartwijk, and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of transverse-mode competition on the injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Quantum Semiclasic. Opt. 9, 737-47 (1997).

Lee, C. G.

Lee, H. J.

Li, H.

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

Li, L.

L. Li, "Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1701-1708 (1994).

L. Li, "A unified description of semiconductor lasers with external light injection and its application to optical bistability," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723-1726 (1994).

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, Y. H.

Lucas, T. L.

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

Lugli, P.

A. Reale, P. Lugli, and S. Betti, "Format conversion of optical data using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 703-709 (2001).

McInerney, J. G.

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

Mecozzi, A.

R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

Mogensen, F.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 21, pp. 784-793, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Monitrosset, I.

Morgan, R. A.

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

Norte, D.

D. Norte and A. E. Willner, "Demonstration of an all-optical data format transparent WDM-to-TDM network node with extinction ratio enhancement for reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 715-717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, D. S.

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

Olesen, H.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 21, pp. 784-793, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

Pan, C.-L.

Park, C. S.

Park, C.-S.

Prucnal, I.

L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).

Reale, A.

A. Reale, P. Lugli, and S. Betti, "Format conversion of optical data using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 703-709 (2001).

Sharfin, W.

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, "Dynamics of optically switched bistable diode laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 303-308 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spano, P.

R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, G. M.

D. L. Boiko, G. M. Stephan, and P. Besnard, "Fast polarization switching with memory effect in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to modulated optical injection," J. of Appl. Phys. 86, 4096-4099 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Storkfelt, N.

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

Stubkjaer, K. E.

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

van Tartwijk, G. H. M.

J. Y. Law, G. H. M. van Tartwijk, and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of transverse-mode competition on the injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Quantum Semiclasic. Opt. 9, 737-47 (1997).

Wang, L. X.

L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).

Willner, A. E.

D. Norte and A. E. Willner, "Demonstration of an all-optical data format transparent WDM-to-TDM network node with extinction ratio enhancement for reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 715-717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wright, M. W.

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

Yu, K.-C.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Hui, A. D’Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, and P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, "Dynamics of optically switched bistable diode laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 303-308 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976-983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, "Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1701-1708 (1994).

H. Li, T. L. Lucas, J. G. McInerney, M. W. Wright, and R. A. Morgan, "Injection locking dynamics of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers under conventional and phase conjugate injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 227-235 (1996).

L. Li, "A unified description of semiconductor lasers with external light injection and its application to optical bistability," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723-1726 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 21, pp. 784-793, 1985.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Reale, P. Lugli, and S. Betti, "Format conversion of optical data using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 703-709 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer, "Measurements of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-mm ridge-waveguide laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 657-660 (1993).

D. Norte and A. E. Willner, "Demonstration of an all-optical data format transparent WDM-to-TDM network node with extinction ratio enhancement for reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 715-717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. X. Wang, B.C. Baby, V. Glesk, and I. Prucnal, "All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 308-310 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. of Appl. Phys.

D. L. Boiko, G. M. Stephan, and P. Besnard, "Fast polarization switching with memory effect in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to modulated optical injection," J. of Appl. Phys. 86, 4096-4099 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Hasebe and F. Koyama, "Modeling of all-optical-signal processing devices based on two-mode injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6697-6703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Quantum Semiclasic. Opt.

J. Y. Law, G. H. M. van Tartwijk, and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of transverse-mode competition on the injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Quantum Semiclasic. Opt. 9, 737-47 (1997).

Other

H. Li and K. Iga, "Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Devices," (Berlin, New York, Springer, 2003), Chaps. 2, 3.

Y. Onishi, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, F. Koyama, and C. E. Zah, "Optical Inverter using a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with External Light Injection," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, (2003).

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988, (corrected 1991).

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